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Decreased levels affect heart rhythm and neurological status. Cuased by vitamin D def, chronic renal failure, magnesium def, alchoholism, biphosphonate therapy.


Elevated levels occur with hyperthyroidism, bone cancer, Paget's disese, other malignancies, renal failure, and aluminum intoxication.


Critcal to celular metabolism, cell membrane integrity, and bone and teeth formation.


Increased levels assoicated with renal failure, hyperthyroidism, diuretic abuse


decreased levels found in hypo/hyperparathyroidism, alchoholism, vitmain D def, hypercapnia

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