Manned Space Exploration Part 2- 5.12

Three ? are named for the Apollo 1 crew; Chaffee Hill, Grissom Hill, and White Hill.
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Terms in this set (23)
Apollo 11 is the most famous of the Apollo missions and was a huge triumph for the United States in the race to space. The program was not without its tragedies, however.
During a training exercise, a ? on the launch pad destroyed the Apollo 1 craft. The three astronauts on board—Command Pilot Virgil I. Grissom, Senior Pilot Ed White, and Pilot Roger B. Chaffee—died in the accident.
Other Apollo missions involved experiments on the moon, driving lunar rovers across the moon's surface, and collecting approximately 382 kg of rock and soil samples. The last Apollo mission to the moon was in 1973. No one has visited the moon since. However, the United States recently announced plans to return to the moon and build a permanent station at its south pole where the sun is always shining.
A space shuttle is a spacecraft used for transporting astronauts, materials, and satellites to and from near-Earth orbit. Space shuttles are different from earlier spacecraft because they can be ? The space shuttle can land like an airplane; although, it takes off like a rocket. Space shuttles are used to carry astronauts and materials into orbit, place satellites in orbit, and make repairs to satellites and the Hubble Space Telescope. Shuttles are also used to transport astronauts and equipment to and from the International Space Station.
Two space shuttles were lost in accidents: Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003. Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavor were retired in 2011.
The 1986 space shuttle Challenger mission crew included the first teacher in space, Christa McAuliffe. Only 73 seconds into its flight, a ? failed and the shuttle disintegrated, killing all crew members on board. Many children interested in the Teacher in Space program saw the launch live. Many people remember exactly where they were when they heard about the Challenger disaster.
Today's focus of manned space exploration is to stay in space for longer periods of time. Orbiting space stations can act as labs where astronauts can live and work. America's first space station, ?, was developed in 1973 and was about the size of a two-bedroom house. Until it re-entered Earth's atmosphere and burned up in 1979, astronauts lived in Skylab while conducting experiments in all areas of science.
The largest and most ambitious space project is the building of the International ?. It is the result of the cooperation among the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, the European Space Agency, and Brazil.
The first section of the ISS was placed in orbit in 1998. Construction was completed in 2011. It is composed of many parts, called modules. It compares in size to a football field. Six astronauts can live and work there at one time. It has a gymnasium, two bathrooms, bedrooms, and four science labs .The space station even has a bay window! Solar arrays on the outside of the space station convert energy from the sun into electricity.
Studies and experiments on the ISS include studying the way animal and plant cells grow in space, ?, studying how crystals grow in space, and observing the effects on humans of long-term exposure to space.
Since the NASA space shuttles have retired, private companies now transport people and materials to and from the ISS.
Project Mercury accomplishmentsFirst American in space; first American to orbit EarthProject Gemini purposeOrbit Earth for two weeks; dock a spacecraft; land a spacecraft on landProject Gemini accomplishmentsOrbit for two weeks; Space craft docking; first American spacewalkApollo Missions purposeTo land and explore the moonapollo missions achievmentsFirst man on moon; examined moonInternational Space Station purposeBuild a space station for all scientists to use; conduct various experimentsInternational space station acheivmentsSix labs; solar panels for energy; study space exposure effects, growth in space, changes to EarthSending humans into space has taught scientists a lot about the effects of space travel on the human body. While in orbit around Earth, astronauts experience ?. They feel weightless and float around the spacecraft. Microgravity affects blood circulation, and astronauts may suffer "puffy face syndrome" in which the face swells and the legs become thinner. Microgravity also affects the muscular system. Without gravity constantly pulling the body toward Earth, the muscles of the legs do not have to work as much or as hard. To avoid any long-term damage, astronauts must exercise while in space. The effects of weightlessness go away once the astronauts return to Earth.microgravityIn space, the heart still pumps as if it were working against the gravitational force of earth. Blood rushes to the head and torso causing puffy face syndrome. Veins in the head and neck stand out and the eyes become red and swollen. Leg muscles become weak from underuse and bones weaken from the lack of minerals such as calcium, potassium, and sodium. To stay strong, astronauts take medicine and exercise as mush as possible. Astronauts' legs become thin and flabby ("bird leg syndrome") since gravity does not pull blood to them. Blood must be pumped there from the heart. Gravity no longer acts on the bones of the spine so the bones spread out and astronauts become a little taller. They return to normal height once they are back on earth. Many astronauts become disoriented or experience space-sickness. Long times in space can lead to mineral loss in bones and an increased risk of fractures. Prolonged exposure in space can cause temporary issues with sensory and motor skills once astronauts return to Earth. In space, radiation exposure is an issue. Extended times in space increases exposure. This can lead to cancer and other diseases. Prolonged time in space can reduce the function of the heart and circulatory system. This can cause a variety of cardiac issues. To combat this, astronauts exercise regularly. Long space missions cause muscle atrophy. Because there is no gravity, muscles do not need to work as hard, so they shrink.negative effects on healthThe ? was the first and only nation to send a man to the moon.United States? was the first American to pilot an orbit around Earth.John GlennDescribe some of the important advances in technology that have allowed for manned missions to space?A space shuttle was made to allow humans to travel to space. Space suits were designed so that humans could float in space and walk the moon. Space stations were made so that humans can dock and remain in space.What are some effects of space travel?Microgravity causes circulation issues, such as a puffy face and muscle fatigue.

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