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26 terms

HISTORY CHAPTER 1

BEGINNIGS OF CIVILIZATION 4 MILLION B.C. TO 200 B.C.
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artifacts
human-made objects, such as tools and jewelry
culture
a people's unique way of life
hominids
humans and other creatures that walked upright, such as australopithecines
Paleolithic Age
(Old Stone Age) the earlier and longer part of the Stone Age which lasted from about 2.5 million to 8000 B.C. The oldest chopping tools date back to this era.
Neolithic Age
(New Stone Age) began about 8000 B.C. and ended as early as 3000 B.C. in some areas. People who lived during this second phase of the Stone Age learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals.
technology
the ways in which people apply knowledge, tools and invention to meet their needs
Homo sapiens
means "wise men," they are the species name for modern humans. They physically resemble Homo erectus but had much larger brains.
australopithecines
a species belonging to the hominids that existed from 4 million to 1 million B.C. They were found in southern and eastern Africa and were the first humanlike creature to walk upright.
Homo habilis
means "man of skill," a species belonging to the hominids that existed from 2.5. million 1.5 million B.C. They were found in East Africa and were the first to make stone tools.
Homo erectus
means "upright man," a species belonging to the hominids that were a more intelligent and adaptable species than Homo habilis. They were the first hominids to migrate, use fire, and speak language.
Neanderthal
a species belonging to the hominids that were powerfully built. Evidence suggests that these species tried to explain and control their world by developing religious beliefs and performing rituals. They were also resourceful and built caves or temporary shelters for the harsh Ice Age winters.
Cro-Magnon
a species belonging to the hominids that were identical to modern humans. They migrated from North Africa to Europe and Asia and planned their hunts by studying animal habits and stalking their prey.
nomad
highly mobile people who moved from place to place foraging for new sources of food
hunter-gatherers
nomadic groups whose food supply depended on hunting animals and collecting plant foods
Neolithic Revolution
(agricultural revolution) far-reaching changes in human life resulting from the beginnings of farming
slash-and-burn farming
a practice where groups would cut trees or grasses and burned them to clear a field. The ashes that remained, fertilized the soil. Farmers planted crops for a year or two, before moving to another area of land. A few years later, trees and grasses grew back, and other farmers repeated the process of slashing and burning.
domestication
taming of animals
A civilization's five characteristics...
advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, improved technology
specialization
development of skills in a specific kind of work
artisan
skilled workers who make goods by hand
institution
long-lasting pattern of organization in a community
scribe
professional record keepers
cuneiform
Sumerian scribes invented this system of writing meaning "wedge-shaped"
Bronze Age
period which refers to the time when people began using bronze, rather than copper and stone, to fashion tools and weapons. This period started in Sumer around 3000 B.C., but the date varied in other parts of Asia and in Europe
barter
a way of trading goods and services without money
ziggurat
usually the tallest and most important building (temple) its a pyramid-shaped monument which means "mountain of god"