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Medical Terminology Final Exam Review (Erlich/Schroeder hybrid edition textbook)
AHS 102 Final Exam Review. Medical Terminology for Health Professionals hybrid edition Erlich/Schroeder. Chapters 1-14
Terms in this set (187)
the abnormal narrowing of an opening (suffix)
the surgical creation of an artificial opening to the body surface (suffix)
surgical suturing to close a wound and includes the use of sutures, staples or surgical glue (suffix)
the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body (ab- means to away from, duct meant to lead, and -ion means action)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme blocks the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension. When this enzyme is blocked, the blood vessels are able to dilate and this reduces blood pressure. These medications are used primarily to treat hypertension and heart failure.
also known as the hip socket; the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint
a precancerous skin growth that occurs on sun-damaged skin
Acute renal failure
ARF. Has sudden onset and is characterized by uremia (a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which urea is retained in the blood). This condition can be caused by many factors, including a sudden drop in blood volume or blood pressure due to injury or surgery.
an antiviral drug, used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity
a benign tumor that arises in, or resembles, glandular tissue
the middle portion of the adrenal gland that secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (which is both a hormone and a neurohormone, but it is released as a hormone by the adrenal medulla)
ACTH, a peptide hormone released from the anterior pituitary, it stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone
a group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought, memory and language. It is marked by progressive deterioration that affects both the memory and reasoning capabilities of an individual.
an abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 3 or more months
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
a rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles. Patients afflicted with this condition become progressively weaker until they are completely paralyzed and die. Also known as ALS and Lou Gehrig's Disease.
a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures
describes the body assuming that the individual is standing in the standard position that includes: standing up straight so that the body is erect and facing forward; holding the arms at the sides with the hands turned with the palms turned toward the front
hormones that influence sex-related characteristics
the ballooning out of an artery wall at a point where it has grown weak
the absence of oxygen from the body's gases, blood, or tissues
lung disease caused by inhaling coal dust, aka Black Lung Disease. anthrac- means coal dust and -osis means abnormal condition or disease.
a form of treatment that disrupts this blood supply to the tumor
a medication administered to control irregularities of the heartbeat
the absence of urine formation by the kidneys
mental conditions characterized by excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations, or fear that is out of proportion to the real danger in a situation. Without treatment, an anxiety disorder can become chronic.
also known as an antianxiety drug or tranquilizer, administered to temporarily relieve anxiety and to reduce tension
the loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds
absence of spontaneous respiration
an abnormal fear of spiders
the tissue death of an artery
the surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
Surgical repair of a joint
carry nerve impulses toward the brain
abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
a condition in which the eye does not focus properly because of uneven curvatures of the cornea
the collapse of part or all of a lung by blockage of the air passages or by very shallow breathing
plaque or fatty substance
absence of normal body opening
occurs when the normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall. This condition causes an irregular and quivering action of the atria. The term fibrillation means a fast, uncontrolled heart beat.
weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures
also known as autistic disorders, describes a group of conditions in which a young child cannot develop normal social relationships, compulsively follows repetitive routines and frequently has poor communication skills.
term used to describe a transfusion from the recipient's own blood
Automated external defibrillator
AED. Designed for use by nonprofessionals in emergency situations when defibrillation is required
not life-threatening, does not reoccur, noncancerous.
a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed (this refers to the digestive term in Ch 8, not the pharmacology term in Ch 15)
aka food poisoning. a rare but very serious condition transmitted through contaminated food or an infected wound, its symptoms include paralysis and sometimes death; caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
abnormally slow resting heartbeat, usually below 60 beats per minute
located in the base of the brain and forms the connection between the brain and the spinal cord. Consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. Controls the functions necessary for survival ( breathing, digestion, heart rate, and blood pressure) and arousal (being awake and alert).
involuntarily or unconsciously clenching or grinding the teeth, typically during sleep, associated with tension or stress.
eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics or other medications.
works with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues
only one epithelial cell in thickness, the smallest blood vessels in the body. Form networks of expanded vascular beds that have the important role of delivering oxygen and nutrients to the cells of tissues.
malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue
rupture of the heart
Carpal tunnel syndrome
symptoms occur when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen
breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy
toward the lower part of the body
persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
the largest and uppermost portion of the brain. It is responsible for all of the thought, judgement, memory and emotion, as well as for controlling and integrating sensory and motor functions. It is divided into two cerebral hemispheres that are connected at the lower midpoint by the corpus callosum. The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex, which is made up of gray matter.
growth of abnormal cells in the cervix, which can be detected by a Pap smear
Cheyne stokes respiration
A pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea.
a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium
pain in the gallbladder
Chorionic villus sampling
examination of cells retrieved from the chorionic villi, which are minute, vascular projections on the chorion. The test is performed between the 8th and 10th weeks of pregnancy to search for genetic abnormalities in the developing fetus.
also known as the choroid coat; the opaque middle layer of the eyeball that contains many blood vessels and provides the blood supply for the entire eye.
surgical repair of a cartilage
a form of bronchitis characterized by excess production of sputum leading to a chronic cough and obstruction of air flow
manipulative reduction without a surgical incision
a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea
thin, milky fluid secreted by the breast during pregnancy and during the first days after birth before lactation begins
Visual examination of the vagina and cervix
fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed
one of a series of enzymes in the blood serum that are part of the immune response
Congestive heart failure
inability to pump enough blood to avoid congestion in the tissues
removal of a cone-shaped section (cone biopsy) of the cervix
the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues
joining of parts
the tissue forming the outer layer of an organ
glucocorticoid hormone that is isolated from the adrenal cortex; used as an anti-inflammatory agent
inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature; the thyroid gland is either congenitally absent or imperfectly developed
chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract. Chronic digestive inflammation causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia
destruction of tissue by freezing
a group of signs and symptoms associated with hypersecretion of the glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex
thick-walled, closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material.
a genetic disorder in which the lungs are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus
Deep vein thrombosis
condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body
a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes
surgical repair of skin
Diabetes type I
diabetes, sometimes called juvenile diabetes, begins most commonly in childhood or adolescence. In this form of diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin.
an abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract usually related to lack of dietary fiber
bending of the foot or the toes upward
Dual x-ray absorptiometry
a low exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density
Ductal carcinomas in situ
breast cancer at the earliest stage before it breaks through the wall of the milk duct; cure rate is almost 100%
thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
Condition caused by insufficient growth hormone in childhood
condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
abnormal development (of organs or cells) or an abnormal structure resulting from such growth
a low-grade chronic depression with symptoms that are milder than those of severe depression but are present on a majority of days for 2 or more years
Condition of abnormal muscle tone
painful or difficult urination
a toxic condition characterized by convulsions and possibly coma during or immediately after pregnancy
a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation
The act of raising or lifting a body part
a clot that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream. When it causes sudden closure of a blood vessel, this dangerous event is an embolism.
a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)
Inflammation of the brain
End-stage renal failure
Less than 10% of renal function remains.
inflammation of the mucous lining of the uterine cervix
surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vagina and so facilitate delivery during childbirth
a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethra is on the upper surface of the penis
a sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head
The study of the relation between human physiology and the physical environment.
an endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract which includes the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum
narrow tubes that lead from the middle ear to the nasal cavity and the throat
strabismus in which one or both eyes are directed outward
intentional production or feigning of physical or psychological signs or symptoms, motivation is to assume the sick role
surgical repair of the fascia
functional endoscopic sinus surgery, a procedure performed using an endoscope in which chronic sinusitis is treated by enlarging the opening between the nose and sinus
Fibrocystic breast disease
the presence of single or multiple benign cysts in the breasts
a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue
finger or fringe like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes
an opening; a groove; a split
bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
disorder with no known physical cause
boil; a painful nodule formed in the skin by inflammation originating in a hair follicle; caused by staphylococcosis
death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply
Virus that produces painful blisters in the genital area of males or females.
the complete genetic material contained in an individual
a physician who specializes in the care of older people
inflammation of the gums
pertaining to a gland
a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, and tumor
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland
bad breath (halitus = breath)
a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulation
a doctor who specializes in diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs
paralysis of one side of the body
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or ruptures; also known as a bleed
anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells
hemorrhage of the liver
hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
presence of excessive body & facial hair in women usually occuring in a male pattern
study of tissues
distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes known as Reed-Sternberg cells
a portable electrocardiograph that is worn by an ambulatory patient to continuously monitor the heart rates and rhythms over a 24-hour period
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in urine.
a patient with imaginary symptoms and ailments
abnormally decreased muscle function or activity
the part of the small intestine between the jejunum and the cecum, third portion of the small intestine, the last and longest portion of the small intestine
the upper and widest of the three bones making up the hipbone
immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
a response of body tissues to injury or irritation, -itis
viral infection of the respiratory system characterized by chills, fever, body aches, and fatigue.
hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas
exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body
chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder
yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood
spoon nails caused by anemia
kidney, ureter, bladder
exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)
a torn ragged wound
tubes that carry tears to the lacrimal sac
paralysis of the vocal cords and larynx
is used to reattach the detached area in a retinal detachment
away from the midline
combining form for white
Loss of WBC production (leukocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes)
hepat/o, large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity, produces bile
Whitish semilunar area at proximal end of nail body
A chronic, autoimmune inflammatory disease affecting the skin and multiple organ systems
A benign tumor formed by an abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system