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too much calcium; deposit into bones or excrete

with hypercalcemia, PTH and calcitonin

pth decreases, calcitonin increases

what happens to threshold and ap with hypercalcemia?

increases threshold making it harder for AP's


too little calcium; increase PTH (osteoclasts degrade bone)


stimulates osteoblasts to put Ca in bone

what secretes PTH?


how does pth increase blood calcium levels?

bone resorption, kidney resorption, vit D increases absorption

vitamin D activates

liver and kidney

sun on skin makes which vit D?


decreased Ca-->PTH makes what form of vitamin D in the kidneys?

calcitriol (dihydroxy)

2 direct targets of pth?

kidney and bone

GH cascade

hypothal (ghrh), ant pit (gh), liver (igf)


inhibits ghrh, stim ghih; inhibits gh


decrease bone formation, increase breakdown


decreases apoptosis, decreases osteoclast


increases bone formation, inhibits resorption

decrease plasma Ca/promote bone deposition

calcitonin, gh, igf, sex hormones

increases plasma Ca/promote resorption

PTH, vitamin D (dihydroxy), cortisol

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