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Indigestible fiber of fruits veggies, and cereal that acts as a stimulus to aid in intestinal peristalsis.
Process by which food is broken down mechanically and chemically and changed to a form than can be absorbed by the body.
6 basic food catagories
Bread, cereal rice pasta
milk, yogurt and cheese
meat poultry, fish beans, eggs nuts
How do the elderly resident's nutritional needs differ from those of a middle aged adults
Nutritional needs are the same but they need less calories
List three items permitted on a clear liquid diet
Three signs of hyperglycemia
11 organs of the digestive system
What are 2 functions of the digestive system
ingests and prepares food for use by body
Name 2 age related changes affecting the digestive system
Need for calories decreases, nutrient needs remain the same
What are the two functions of the endocrine system?
secretes hormones to regulate body processes of growth and development
regulates body functions
Name two non nutrients Identify the importance of each non nutrient
Water- person can only live a few days without water
Fiber-provides bulk to the stool
a chronic disease in which the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin or the body does not effectively use the insulin secreted
an example of a cultural religious dietary restriction
Jewish Orthodox who cannot have meat and dairy served at the same meal.
4 considerations in preparing the resident for a meal
wash resident's hands
oral care before breakfast
dentures, glasses, hearing aids in place
List two considerations in preparing and serving food trays
check name, make sure they get correct tray
check tray to make sure diet is correct for that resident
four things a nurse assistant can do to assist the resident to eat
place tray in front of resident with main dish close
arrange everything so resident can reach it
open milk cartons, juices, cereal boxes etc
cut up food spread butter etc
identify four key points in feeding the resident
make sure resident is in an upright position, put clothing protection on
alternate solids and fluids
allow time for swallowing and chewing
give small manageable bites 1/2 to 3/4 tsp (?tbsp)
what are four things you should do after a resident has finished a meal
remove tray-report amount eaten
remove clothing protector
wash hands face
keep resident in an upright position for at least 30 minutes to prevent reflux or aspiration
Describe how you could tell the resident who is visually impaired where his or her food is located?
identify everything on the tray by comparing the position of the food to the hour hand of a clock.
List three assistive devices that may help the resident to be more independent at meal times
Nosey cup (sippy cup)
Built up (handles) utensils
What are liquids and solids alernated during the meal
to provide moisture for chewing and swallowing
Describe how thickened liquids are used
1 packet (1 tbsp) =nectar consistency
2 packets (2 tbsp) =honey consistency
3 packets (3 tbsp)=pudding consistency
When feeding a resident the NA prevents choking by
ensuring the resident's dentures are in his or her mouth
If a choking resident can speak cough or breath do not intervene because starting the procedure may cause the resident to
breath in harder and force the object further down the respiratory tract
When a resident is receiving an IV feeding the NA should observe and report the resident's complaint of
pain at the site
4 fluids that must be measured for oral intake
water, coffee, tea, jello
juices sodas etc
ice cream, milk shake
4 methods of giving frequent fluids
offer favorite beverages
place fluids within reach of resident
offer a variety of fluids
offer fluids at frequent intervals
identify three key points in distributing drinking water
make sure water is fresh and pitchers are clean
offer water at regular intervals and at meals
make sure you place eater in reach of resident
identify four key points in measuring I & O
average oral intake for an adult is 2000-3000 cc a day
keep paper and pen in room to record I & O
I & O is added up at end of each shift and totaled at 24 hours
when MD orders I & O it must be accurate no guessing
3 signs of dehydration
low blood pressure
weak rapid pulse
dry lips and mucous membranes
rapid weight loss
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