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59 terms

CNA Nutrition test

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Peristalsis
Wave like movements through the digestive tract that move food through.
Defecation
Passing of stool
Roughage/Fiber
Indigestible fiber of fruits veggies, and cereal that acts as a stimulus to aid in intestinal peristalsis.
Nutrient
Food that supplies the body with its necessary elements
Residue
What remains after something is removed
Digestion
Process by which food is broken down mechanically and chemically and changed to a form than can be absorbed by the body.
Nutrition
The process of taking in food and producing energy from it.
5 catagories of nutrients
Proteins
Carbs
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals
6 basic food catagories
Bread, cereal rice pasta
vegetables
fruits
milk, yogurt and cheese
meat poultry, fish beans, eggs nuts
fats
How do the elderly resident's nutritional needs differ from those of a middle aged adults
Nutritional needs are the same but they need less calories
List three items permitted on a clear liquid diet
Coffee
tea
broth
jello
juices
popsicles
water
ice chips
List three items permitted on a full liquid diet
milk
pudding
creamed soups
ice cream
A sodium restricted diet is low in
salt
What are two ways a nutritionally complete liquid diet can be provided?
Oral
NG or G Tube
Three signs of hyperglycemia
frequent thirst
frequent urination
weight loss
constant hunger
fruity breath
headaches
Three signs of hypoglycemia
Headaches
dizziness
hunger
weakness, shakiness
sweating
disorientation
11 organs of the digestive system
Mouth
Salivary glands
esophogas
liver
gallbladder
stomach
pancreas
large intestines
small intestines
appendix
rectum/anus
What are 2 functions of the digestive system
ingests and prepares food for use by body
excretes wastes
Name 2 age related changes affecting the digestive system
Need for calories decreases, nutrient needs remain the same
Constipation
7 glands of the endocrine system
pituitary
thyroid
parathyroid
adrenal
pancreas
ovaries
testes
What are the two functions of the endocrine system?
secretes hormones to regulate body processes of growth and development
regulates body functions
Name 2 age related changes affecting the endocrine system
less hormone production
muscle weakness
Name two non nutrients Identify the importance of each non nutrient
Water- person can only live a few days without water
Fiber-provides bulk to the stool
diabetes
a chronic disease in which the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin or the body does not effectively use the insulin secreted
an example of a cultural religious dietary restriction
Jewish Orthodox who cannot have meat and dairy served at the same meal.
4 considerations in preparing the resident for a meal
offer tolieting
wash resident's hands
oral care before breakfast
dentures, glasses, hearing aids in place
List two considerations in preparing and serving food trays
check name, make sure they get correct tray
check tray to make sure diet is correct for that resident
four things a nurse assistant can do to assist the resident to eat
place tray in front of resident with main dish close
arrange everything so resident can reach it
open milk cartons, juices, cereal boxes etc
cut up food spread butter etc
identify four key points in feeding the resident
make sure resident is in an upright position, put clothing protection on
alternate solids and fluids
allow time for swallowing and chewing
give small manageable bites 1/2 to 3/4 tsp (?tbsp)
what are four things you should do after a resident has finished a meal
remove tray-report amount eaten
remove clothing protector
wash hands face
keep resident in an upright position for at least 30 minutes to prevent reflux or aspiration
Describe how you could tell the resident who is visually impaired where his or her food is located?
identify everything on the tray by comparing the position of the food to the hour hand of a clock.
List three assistive devices that may help the resident to be more independent at meal times
Plate guard
Nosey cup (sippy cup)
Built up (handles) utensils
What are liquids and solids alernated during the meal
to provide moisture for chewing and swallowing
Describe how thickened liquids are used
1 packet (1 tbsp) =nectar consistency
2 packets (2 tbsp) =honey consistency
3 packets (3 tbsp)=pudding consistency
When feeding a resident the NA prevents choking by
ensuring the resident's dentures are in his or her mouth
If a choking resident can speak cough or breath do not intervene because starting the procedure may cause the resident to
breath in harder and force the object further down the respiratory tract
When a resident is receiving an IV feeding the NA should observe and report the resident's complaint of
pain at the site
define disaphoresis
excessive sweating
define the term graduate
rigid container
3 routes to administer fluids
oral
IV
GT/NG tube
4 fluids that must be measured for oral intake
water, coffee, tea, jello
juices sodas etc
ice cream, milk shake
cream sherbert
define frequent fluids
taking in more than usual number of drinks
4 methods of giving frequent fluids
offer favorite beverages
place fluids within reach of resident
offer a variety of fluids
offer fluids at frequent intervals
3 items that are measured for output
urine
vomit
diarrhea
identify three key points in distributing drinking water
make sure water is fresh and pitchers are clean
offer water at regular intervals and at meals
make sure you place eater in reach of resident
identify four key points in measuring I & O
average oral intake for an adult is 2000-3000 cc a day
keep paper and pen in room to record I & O
I & O is added up at end of each shift and totaled at 24 hours
when MD orders I & O it must be accurate no guessing
1 ml equals
1 cc
1 tsp equals
5cc
1 oz equals
30 cc
4 oz equals
120 cc
8oz of water glass
240cc
NCS
non concentrated sweets
LCS
low concentrated sweets
name of position for mealtime
Fowler's position
Enteral nutrition
giving nutrients through the digestive tract using a tube.
Aspiration
when the tube feeding enters the lungs during the feeding.
Parenteral nutrition
provides the daily nutritional requirements through an IV
3 signs of dehydration
thirst
constipation
decreased urination
low blood pressure
weak rapid pulse
confusion
dry lips and mucous membranes
rapid weight loss
3 things the body needs to keep it going
water
fiber
nutrients