Module 1 study terms

Anatomy
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Terms in this set (64)
IdiopathicWhen predisposing factors cannot be identifiedEtiologyThe occurrences, reasons and variables of a diseaseSymptomWhat the patient tells you about the disease (SUBJECTIVE)SignWhat you can identify through physical examination (OBJECTIVE)SyndromeA constellation (group) of commonly found signs and symptomsDiagnosisProcess of identifying and assigning a name to a diseaseAcuteA sudden onsetChronicA slower over time onsetSyndromeConstellation of signs and symptoms commonly seen in a particular disease or conditionPrognosisExpected outcomeInfectiousResult from invasion of the body and colonization by pathogenic organismsImmunologyOverreactions of the immune systemInflammatoryResult from the body's response to another disease processIschemicDue to diminished blood supplyMetabolicDisturbance in the biochemical and metabolic processNutritionalResult from a deficiency in one or all of the major nutritional sourcesCongenitalResult from problems that occur during fetal developmentTraumaExternal physical forces that change or disrupt the structure of the bodyPhysical agentsChemicals, poisons, radiation, temperature extremes, atmospheric pressure changes, electrical shock.AtomThe fundamental (smallest) chemical unitProtonsPositively charged particle within the nucleus (+)NeutronsElectrically neutral particle within the nucleus of an atomElectronsElectrons negatively charged particle which orbit the nucleus (-)ElementA substance that cannot be separated into simpler substancesOrbitalThe region where electrons rotate around the nucleus of an atomElectron shellTerm for levels of orbitalsValence shellTerm for the Outermost shellWhen are electrons the most stable?When the valence shell, (outermost) is fullHow much money is the bodies amount of Elements worth?$160.00What is the simplest atom?Hydrogencovalent bondA chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a moleculeMoleculetwo or more atoms held together by covalent bondsIonic bondA chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged atomsAnionA negatively charged ionCationA positively charged ionHydrogen bondweak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom4 major compounds of the living system areCarbohydrates, proteins, nucleus acids, and lipidsGlucosePrincipal energy source for the humanGlycogenAn extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and most important in human pathoProteinsBasic building block of cellsenzymesProteins that speed up chemical reactionsATP ( A nucleic acid)(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their workLipidsdon't dissolve in water , why? Bc they form a barrier that is not water solubleIs Water a solute or solvent, and what roles does it have in the body?Solvent, used to transport substances throughout body, and help maintain a constant body tempaturePathologythe scientific study of diseasePathophysiologythe study of how disease processes affect the function of the bodyErythrocytesred blood cells, carry oxygenLeukocyteswhite blood cells, fight infectioninorganic chemicalsmolecules that lack the basic framework of the elements of carbon and hydrogenorganic chemicalscompounds containing carbon bonded to hydrogensGlycogenlysisbreakdown of glycogen to glucosenephronfunctional unit of the kidneyBronchitwo short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs.hormoneChemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another