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Explain why the lymphatic system is a one-way system, whereas the blood vascular system is a two-way system.

Blood vessels form a complete circuit from and to the heart. The lymphatic system lacks arteries and begins with blind-ended lymph capillaries. Thus, it is a "return" system only.

What name is given to the terminal duct draining most of the body?

thoracic duct

Which portion of the body is drained by the right lymphatic duct?

Right half of upper torso and head; right arm.

Note three areas where lymph nodes are densely clustered.

axillary, cervical & inguinal


conduit for both air and food


The "gullet"; no digestive/absorptive function


Folds of the gastric mucosa

Ileocecal valve

Valve at the junction of the small and large intestines

Small Intestine

Primary region of food and water absorption

Large Intestine

Absorbs water and forms feces


Initiates protein digestion

Small Intestine

Organ distal to the stomach

Pyloric Valve

Valve controlling food movement from the stomach into the duodenum

Parietal Peritoneum

Serous lining of the abdominal cavity wall

Large Intestine

Principal site for the synthesis of vitamin K by microorganisms


region containing two sphincters through which feces are expelled from the body

what is the role of the gallbladder?

Stores and concentrates bile made by the liver.

where would you find developing sperm?


where would you find interstitial cells?

Adjacent to seminiferous tubules in the testes

where would you find sustentacular cells?

In the wall of the seminiferous tubules.

copulatory organ/penetrating device


muscular passage way conveying sperm to the ejaculatory duct; in the spermatic cord

vas deferens

transports both sperm and urine

spongy urethra

sperm maturation site


location of the testis in the adult male


loose fold of skin encircling the glans penis


portion of the urethra between the prostate gland and the penis

membranous urethra

empties a secretion into the prostatic urethra

prostate gland

empties a secretion into the membranous urethra

bulbourethral glands

Using the following terms, trace the pathway of sperm from the testes to the urethra:

seminiferous tubule to rete testis to epididymis to ductus deference

Name the structures composing the external genitalia, or vulva, of the female

mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vaginal and urethral openings, hymen, and greater vestibular glands


site of fetal development


copulatory canal

uterine tube

"fertilized egg" typically formed here


becomes erect during sexual excitement


partially closes the vaginal canal; a membrane


produces oocytes, estrogens, and progesterone


fingerlike ends of the uterine tube

Put the following vestibular-perineal structures in their proper order from the anterior to the posterior aspect: vaginal orifice, anus, urethral opening, and clitoris

clitoris, urethral opening, vaginal orifice, anus

What is the function of the cavernous bodies seen in the male penis?

This tissue can become engorge with blood, thus making the penis stiff and more effective as a penetrating device

Name the three layers of the uterine wall from the inside out:

endometrium, myometrium, serosa (perimetrium)

Which of the 3 layers of the uterine wall is sloughed off during menses?


Which of the 3 layers of the uterine wall contracts during childbirth?


glands that produce milk during lactation


subdivisions of mammary lobes that contain alveoli


enlarged storage chambers for milk

lactiferous sinus

ducts connecting alveoli to the lactiferous sinus

lactiferous duct

pigmented area surrounding the nipple


Releases milk to outside


Site of filtrate formation


Primary site of tubular reabsorption

Proximal convulated tubule

Secondarily important site of tubular reabsorption

Distal convulated tubule

Structure that conveys the processed filtrate (urine) to the renal pelvis

Collecting duct

Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells

Peritubular capillaries

Its inner (visceral) membrane forms part of the filtration membrane

Glomerular capsule

Trace the anatomical pathway of a molecule of creatinine (metabolic waste) from the glomerular capsue to the urethra.

Glomerular capsule-->proximal convulated tubule-->loop of Henle-->distal convulated tubule-->collecting tubule-->minor calyx-->major calyx-->renal pelvis-->ureter--> bladder-->urethra

Connects the larynx to the primary bronchi


Site of tonsils


Food passageway posterior to the trachea


Covers the glottis during swallowing of food


Contains the vocal cords


Nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration

Phrenic Nerve

Pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax

Parietal Pleura

Site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood


Connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx

opening of pharyngotympanic tube

Opening between the vocal folds


Increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity


Separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity


Trace a molecule of oxygen from the external nares to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs.

External nares --> nasal cavity --> pharynx --> larynx --> trachea --> primary bronchus --> secondary/tertiary bronchi --> bronchiole --> respiratory bronchiole --> alveolar duct --> alveolar sac across the alveolar/capillary walls --> Pulmonary capillaries

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