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edp 201 final exam study guide
Terms in this set (48)
fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition, community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning"
learning precedes development
children proceed in maturation through four stages, how they interact with their environment and how they integrate new knowledge and information into existing knowledge
Piaget's 4 stages
1. children are active learners who construct knowledge from their environments
2. they learn through assimilation and accommodation, and complex cognitive development occurs through equilibration
3. the interaction with physical and social environments is key for cognitive development
4. development occurs in stages
Piaget: Nature vs. Vygotsky: Nurture
occurs when a child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. basically a balance between reliance on prior information and openness to new information
interpretation of new material/info in terms of pre-existing concepts, info, or ideas
revision or modification of pre-existing concepts in terms of new information or experience
each individual passes through eight developmental stages, each stage is characterized by a different psychological "crisis", which must be resolved by the individual before the individual can move on to the next stage
Erickson's Crisis Stage 1
Stage 1: Infancy
Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust
In the first year of life, infants depend on others for food, warmth, and affection, and therefore must be able to blindly trust the parents (or caregivers) for providing those.
Erickson's Crisis Stage 2
Stage 2: Toddler
Crisis: Autonomy (independence) vs. Doubt (shame)
Toddlers learn to walk, talk, use toilets, and do things for themselves. Their self-control and self-confidence begin to develop at this stage.
Erickson's Crisis Stage 3
Stage 3: Early Childhood
Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt
- balance between eagerness for more adventure and more responsibility, and learning to control impulses and childish fantasies.
Erickson's Crisis Stage 4
Stage 4: Elementary and Middle School
Crisis: Competence vs. Inferiority
- skills to be a worker and a potential provider. And they do all these while making the transition from the world of home into the world of peers.
Erickson's Crisis Stage 5
Stage 5: Adolescence
Crisis: Identity vs. Role confusion
Adolescents who have successfully dealt with earlier conflicts are ready for the "Identity Crisis", which is considered by Erikson as the single most significant conflict a person must face.
Erickson's Crisis Stage 6
Stage 6: Young Adulthood
Crisis: Intimacy vs. Isolation
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. No matter how successful you are with your work, said Erikson, you are not developmentally complete until you are capable of intimacy.
Erickson's Crisis Stage 7
Stage 7: Middle Adulthood
Crisis: Generavity vs. Stagnation
- By "generativity" Erikson refers to the adult's ability to look outside oneself and care for others
Erickson's Crisis Stage 8
Stage 8: Late Adulthood
Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair
- reflecting upon one's own life and its role in the big scheme of things, and seeing it filled with pleasure and satisfaction or disappointments and failures
Brofenbrenner's biological model
development influenced by interacting physical and social contexts. consists of:
- the immediate surroundings of the individual (family, peers, school)
- relationships between the immediate surroundings, like the connection between family and school experiences
- connection between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context, for example wife's or child's experience at home may be influenced by the husband's experiences at work
- culture in which the individual lives
- the pattern of transitions in the individuals life
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Level 1- Pre conventional Morality
Stage 1: obedience and punishment orientation
Stage 2: individualism and exchange
Level 2- Conventional Morality
Stage 3: Good interpersonal relationships
Stage 4: maintaining the social order
Level 3- post conventional morality
Stage 5: social contract and individual rights
Stage 6: Universal principles
affection reaction of overall judgement of self
an educational philosophy which says that no child can be denied an education because they are "uneducable". One of the six core principles of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that no child with a disability can be denied a free appropriate public education.
a perception of complete lack of control in mastering a task. The attitude is similar to depression, a pervasive feeling of apathy and a belief that effort makes no difference and does not lead to success.
a fully fluent bilingual student is in a better position than usual to express concepts or ideas in more than one way, and to be aware of doing so
oppositional cultural identity
meaning that they define themselves not by who they are, but by how they differ from or oppose mainstream culture
Skinner's view of learning
believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning.
neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which the subject has an automatic inborn response
form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behaviors occurrence
process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated
schedule of reinforcement
individuals can predict when reinforcement will occur
refers to the disappearance of an operant behavior because of lack of reinforcement. A student who stops receiving gold stars or compliments for prolific reading of library books, for example, may extinguish (i.e.
decrease or stop) book-reading behavior
cognitive view of learning
Learning takes place in the mind, not in behavior. It involves the formation of mental representations of the elements of a task and the discovery of how these elements are related.
behavioral view of learning
Learning involves the formation of associations between specific actions and specific events (stimuli) in the environment. These stimuli may either precede or follow the action (antecedents vs. consequences).
information processing system
input, storage, and output.
* Input processes are concerned with the analysis of the stimuli.
* Storage processes cover everything that happens to stimuli internally in the brain and can include coding and manipulation of the stimuli.
* Output processes are responsible for preparing an appropriate response to a stimulus.
also called response set, the tendency for a person to frame or think about each problem in a series in the same way as the previous problem, even when doing so is not appropriate to later problems.
the ability to make or do something new that is also useful or valued by others. To be creative, the object, skill, or action cannot simply be bizarre or strange; it cannot be new without also being useful or valued, and not simply be the result of accident.
typically defined as the forces that account for the arousal, selection, direction, and continuation of behavior.
involves judgement of capabilities, trying things specific to a particular task
constructivism is the "inner" thoughts of readers or leaders, both the psychological and social versions of constructivist learning, the novice is not really "taught" so much as simply allowed to learn. But compared to psychological constructivism, social constructivism highlights a more direct responsibility of the expert for making learning possible.
shift some of the responsibility for directing and organizing learning from the teacher to the student.
stands the usual advice about expository (lecture-style) teaching on its head: instead of presenting well-organized knowledge to students, the teacher (or sometimes fellow students) pose thoughtful questions intended to stimulate discussion and investigation by students.
tasks for cooperative learning
- Assessment of activities should hold both the group and the individuals accountable for success.
- Students need to believe in the value and necessity of cooperation.
- Students need skills at working together.
- Students need time and a place to talk and work together.
an integrated process of gaining information about students' learning and making value judgments about their progress
different ways of instruction:
- case studies
- service learning
- independent study
- concept maps
(examples of the way teachers strategize to teach)
foundation for many academic tasks. In first grade, for example, it is important to know whether children can successfully manipulate a pencil. In later grades, it is important to know how long students can be expected to sit still without discomfort. it is important to understand because it can affect how kid's learn
Bandura's social cognitive theory
CORE CONCEPTS OF THE THEORY
1. people can learn through observation
2. Mental states are important to learning (intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment)
3. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior.
Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning.While the behavioral theories of learning suggested that all learning was the result of associations formed by conditioning, reinforcement, and punishment, Bandura's social learning theory proposed that learning can also occur simply by observing the actions of others. His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people.
triarchic reciprocal casuality
Dynamic interplay between personal, environmental, and behavioral influences
Personal factors: beliefs, expectations, attitudes, knowledge
Environmental factors: resources, other people, physical settings
Behavioral factors: actions, choices, verbal statements
Linguistic: verbal skill; ability to use language well
Musical: ability to create and understand music
Logical: Mathematical: logical skill; ability to reason, often using mathematics
Spatial: ability to imagine and manipulate the arrangement of objects in the environment
Bodily: kinesthetic: sense of balance; coordination in use of one's body
Interpersonal: ability to discern others' nonverbal feelings and thoughts
Intrapersonal: sensitivity to one's own thoughts and feelings
Naturalist: sensitivity to subtle differences and patterns found in the natural environment
technology in the classroom
classrooms, schools, and students use computers more often today than in the past for research, writing, communicating, and keeping records. Technology has created new ways for students to learn. It has also altered how teachers can teach most effectively, and even raised issues about what constitutes "true" teaching and learning.
are qualities that are unique; just one person has them at a time. Variation in hair color, for example, is an individual difference; even though some people have nearly the same hair color, no two people are exactly the same.
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