mucus, calcium carbonate
2 components of horse urine that gives it its cloudy appearance
typical specific gravity range in horses
with renal diseases in the horse, will you see elevations in creatinine or BUN first?
urine enzyme used to evaluate tubular damage in the kidney
urinary GGT can also be used to monitor toxicity with what?
which kidney can you palpate on rectal palpation?
if on rectal palpation the left kidney is found to be painful, would you assume that an acute or chronic condition is present?
blood, hemoglobin, rifampin
3 possible causes of red urine in the horse
main cause of dark red/brown urine in the horse
rhabdomyolysis, cystic calculi
2 main differentials for pigmenturia if it is brought about with exercise
idiopathic urethritis
what is another term for terminal hematuria in geldings?
is hematuria due to urethritis in geldings most pronounced at the beginning or end of urination?
antibiotics, corticosteroids
most cases of urethritis in gelding will resolve in several weeks, but what 2 drug group can you give to that horse as supportive therapy until that resolution?
is horse urine with a high mucus content have a decreased or increased likely hood of developing crystals?
calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate
2 most common compositions of cystic calculi in the horse
hematuria after exercise
what is the most common clinical sign of cystic calculi in the horse?
rectal palpation, rectal ultrasonography, cystoscopy
3 ways to confirms diagnosis of cystic calculi
antibiotics are recommended for a minimum of how many days following removal of cystic calculi in the horse?
what can you add to the diet to help prevent further stone formation?
ammonium chloride, vitamin c
2 urine acidifiers used to dissolve cystic calculi
are nephroliths more common to be unilateral or bilateral?
what drug group can increase the chance of forming nephroliths?
psychogenic polydipsia, medullary washout, diabetes
3 causes of PU if specific gravity is <1.007
acute tubular necrosis
what is the most common cause of renal failure in the horse?
vasomotor, toxic
2 most common underlying general causes of acute renal failure
loss of concentrating ability, azotemia
horses are in the induction phase of renal failure until what 2 things develop?
the maintenance phase of renal failure occurs when up to what percent of nephrons have been lost?
in the recovery phase of renal failure, it can take up to how many weeks for full concentrating ability to occur?
with acute renal failure, what increases first, BUN or creatinine?
would you administer furosemide or an ARF horse if it is oliguric or nonoliguric?
what drug can be given with furosemide in an ARF horse if diuresis wasn't able to be induced?
aminoglycoside toxicity
most common cause of tubular nephrosis in the horse
is ARF with aminoglycosides typically oliguric or polyuric?
what can you see in the urine of a horse with tubular nephrosis (due to aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity)?
renal crest necrosis
most common problem resulting due to NSAID nephrotoxicity
loss of concentrating ability
what is the earliest sign of NSAID nephrotoxicity?