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Chapter 2 APP
Terms in this set (65)
List characteristics of Cell Membrane-Plasma Membrane Phospholipid Bilayer
-Comprised of lipids and proteins)
-Phospholipids have hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail
-Permeability vary depending on various channels
What membrane proteins are in plasma membrane?
Integral Proteins: Penetrate membrane
Peripheral Proteins: Surface of membrane only (in or out)
What are the functions of proteins?
Pumps- transport ions across membrane
Channels- aqueous ports, gated or un-gated
Receptors- For hormones/neurotransmitters
Enzymes- Catalyzes reactions on surface of cell
What are the functions of Mitochondria?
*Provide ATP for cell through oxidative phosphorylation
*Regulation of apoptosis
Cell can have thousands of mitochondria and mitochondria has own DNA
What is the function of Lysosomes?
They digest various old cell components.
Lysosomes merge w/ vacuoles, digest contents, then contents absorbed by cell or secreted by exocytosis
The interior of lysosomes contain what?
How is the interior of lysosomes kept acidic?
Contains acid hydro lasers (40+ types)
Kept acidic by Proton Pumps
Where are Peroxisomes found?
What do Peroxisomes contain?
Peroxisomes found in cytoplasm (small)
Contain enzymes that either produce or break down H2O2, and contain enzymes associated with catabolism of long chain fatty acids (breakdown of lipids)
What is the purpose of the cytoskeleton?
1. Provides structure for cell's shape
2. Allows cell to change shape and move
What is a Cytoskeleton and what anchors it?
Cytoskeleton is system of fibers that maintain structure and allow shape and movement of cell.
They're anchored by proteins.
What are the major types of cytoskeleton elements, their diameter, and protein subunit?
Microfilament- 7nm- Actin
Intermediate filament- 10nm - Several Proteins
Microtubule- 25nm- Tubulin
What are the functions of Microtubules and what are they made of?
Transports/ rearranges cellular organelles, and aids with cell division
Microtubules are made of Tubulin
What are the two components of microtubules?
Centrioles: Derived from centrosomes, form mitotic spindles that draw chromosomes to daughter cells
Cilia: Hairlike structure protruding from cell, will propel substances over surface of cell (mucus)—Smoking stops cilia movement
What protein occurs in Microfilaments?
What's the function of Microfilaments?
Provide movement to many cell processes
What's the function of intermediate filament?
Forms flexible intracellular scaffolding.
What is function of Molecular Motors?
-Move proteins, organelles, and other cell part around cell
-Convert energy to ATP in movement along cytoskeleton
What are features of Molecular Motors, and what are the 3 super families?
Can be several feet long
1. Kinesin. 2. Dynein. 3. Myosin
What are Intercellular Junctions
Junctions that fasten cells together &/ allow passage of ions from cell to cell.
What are characteristics of Tight Junctions (Zonula Occludens)?
* Apical Margins
* Adhere Very Strongly
* No Spaces
* Little Movement of Ions
* In Epithelial & Renal Cells and Choroid Plexus
What are Desmosomes?
Patches where cells connect by proteins or other filamentous material
What are Hemidesmosomes?
patches where cells connect to basal lamina y Cell Adhesion Molecules
What are Gap Junctions?
Intercellular connections that allow ion movement
Units called _____, are made up of ___ proteins subunits called____.
Connexons; 6; Connexins
Gap Junctions are important for what communication between cells?
Imp. for electrical communication between cells. (Smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, and more)
Name components of Nucleus and what it is surrounded by.
Contains Chromatin, DNA, Proteins, & Nucleolus.
Surrounded by double layer Nuclear Envelope
What's imp. about the Nucleolus?
Is sitie of synthesis of ribosomes
What are ribosomes composed of and what do they do?
Have RNA and protein
They're the site of protein synthesis when attached to mRNA and endoplasmic reticulum. (Proteins extruded into E.R.)
Where are Ribosomes synthesized?
In the Nucleolus
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum and what are the two types of E.R.?
It is network of membrane tubules in cytoplasm
Rough E.R and Smooth E.R.
What is Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum.
Rough E.R concerned with protein synthesis and initial folding of polypeptide chains (form disulfide bonds)
Smooth E.R. is site of steroid synthesis in steroid-secreting cells, and site of detoxification process in other cells.
What is the Golgi Apparatus and its purpose?
It is a membrane enclosed sac.
Proteins are packed in vesicles that bud off rER then migrate to Golgi for post-translational modification (hydroxylation, carboxylation, glycosylation, phosphorylation, cleavage of peptide bonds to form smaller peptide folding into final configuration.—————- The modifications may be followed by exocytosis.
Way that things transport across cell membranes:
Endocytosis (vesicle formed from membranes)
Through Ion Channels
Primary & Secondary Active Transport
Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane & release contents. (Lipid Bilayer of vesicles contain membrane proteins that play a role in vesicles fusing w/ target.
What is SNAREs?
Soluble Nethylmadleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor
Substances are brought into the cell.
What is phagocytosis?
Process of engulfing larger cell tissue or bacteria
What is pinocytosis?
(Cell Drinking) Engulfing of smaller sized substances
Where does Clathrin-mediated endocytosis occur?
Where clathrin accumulates. (associated w/ internalization of many receptors w ligands bound to them)
Clathrin molecules accumulate on the ____ of the plasma membrane.
The molecules help cause _____ of vesicles.
Once vesicles are complete, clathrin ____ and the proteins ___ to form another ___
Falls off; Recycle; Vesicle
What nonpolar molecules can readily diffuse across the plasma membrane?
Most ions require a what?
O2, N2, CO2
Water channels, and integral membrane pore proteins
Aquaporins will selectively ____ _____ molecules ___ and ___ of cell.
They usually ____ the ____ of ____ and other ____
They have diff. ____. Where is one found and what does it require to be opened.
Conduct water molecules; in and out
Prevent; passage; ions; solutes
Isoforms; Found in Kidney where it's regulated and requires vasopressin to be opened
What is the Sodium-Potassium Pump?
Electrogenic pump moving 3 sodium ions out of cell & 2 potassium ions into cell.
(Na+/K+ ATPase is imp.0
The Sodium-Potassium Pump requires what to operate, and it moves ions against their____ ____.
Requires ATP to operate.
Moves ions against their concentration gradient.
Ouabain will inhibit the ____.
Na+/K+-ATPase Sodium-Potassium Ion Pump
Describe Secondary Active Transprort.
Sodium Concentration gradient inside cell brings Na+ into cell (or takes K+ out)
The Na+/K= ATPase is responsible for setting up the ____ ____.
What happens when Na+ comes in or K+ comes out of cell?
It moves other substances in and out depending on carrier protein.
Define Gap Junctions (cell-cell).
Intercellular channels that permit cell-cell transfer of ions & small molecules.
Define Neural Communication (Synaptic)
Signaling between neurons by releasing neurotransmitter that'll bind to receptors. Across synaptic cleft.
Define Paracrine and Autocrine. (Signal stage in interstitial fluid)
Paracrine: Cell produce signal to induce change in nearby cells.
Autocrine: Cell secretes hormone or chemical messenger that binds to autocrine receptors on cell leading to changes.
Define Endocrine.(Signals in blood and continuously circulate through body)
Network of glands that make hormones to help cells communicate. Responsible for cell, organ, and functions in body.
Where will chemical messengers bind to receptors and what are the chemical messengers usually.
On cell surface , cytoplasm, or nucleus.
They're usually proteins.
When hormones/ neurotransmitters are in excess, # of active receptors can decrease
When deficiency of chemical messengers, there can be increase in # of active receptors.
What are the 4 categories that secondary responses within the cell can divided into?
1. Ion Channel Activation
2. G-Protein Activation
3. Activation of Enzyme activity w/in cell
4. Direct Activation of Transcription
Receptor Ligand Interactions-- Resulting cell signal pathway provides ___ of the ____ signal.
What is the purpose of Receptor-ligand Interaction?
Distribution of signal to appropriate targets w/in cell.
What are the mechanisms by which Chemical Messengers Act?
1. 1st Messenger: protein/chemical released to act on another cell. 1st M combines w/ receptor on cell surface & triggers production of an intracellular messenger
2. 2nd messenger: Intracellular messenger. Will catalyze changes in cellular metabolism by increasing activity of protein kinase & intracellular Ca2+
3. 2nd M will sometimes activate kinase that moves to nucleus. This can phosphorylate a transcription factor that increase mRNA production. (slow process- 1/2 hrs)
Describe Ca2+ as 2nd messenger.
Calcium regulates large # of physiological processes:
-Neural signaling (release of neurotransmitters)
G proteins are a common way to what?
G proteins are ____ in the ___ ___ & coupled with a receptor.
Translate a signal to a biological effect.
Anchored; Plasma Membrane
Binding the ligand causes ___ (bound to the alpha G protein subunit) to be exchanged for ___, and this activates the ____ _____ and triggers the biological effect.
GDP; GTP; G proteins
Describe the Inositol Triphosphate (IP3) & Dicylglycerol (DAG) as 2nd Messengers.
Link between membrane binding of a ligand that acts via Ca2+ & prompt release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ is IP3 and DAG.
What is PLC and PKC
PLC- phospholipase C
PKC- Protein Kinase C
Adenylyl Cyclase is another process for what, and what does it do?
Another process for 2nd messenger.
It forms cAMP from ATP.
What does cAMP do?
What does Protein Kinase A do?
cAMP activates protein kinase A.
Protein Kinase A phosphorylates intracellular enzymes to give physiological effect.
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