Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
CH.11 Performance Enhancing Substances and Methods
Terms in this set (21)
9Any substance, mechanical aid, or training method that improves sport performance; for the purposes of this chapter, the term refers specifically to pharmacologic aids.
-product intended to supplement the diet that contains one or more of the following
4. amino acid
5. dietary substance for use by humans
6. concentrate, metabolite, extract
•The synthetic (man-made) derivatives of the male sex hormone, testosterone
•Elevations in testosterone concentrations stimulate protein synthesis, resulting in improvements in muscle size, body mass, and strength
Types of Anabolic Steroids
cycling, pyramid pattern.
-injectable are administered intramuscularly by deep gluteal.
inc lean muscle mass and max strength
-inc. protein synthesis
table 11.2 ** signs and symptoms of ergogenic aid abuse
hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
This stimulates the corpus luteum to produce estrogen & progesterone
•Facilitates the uptake of glucose and amino acids into the cells
•There are several reports that postworkout carbohydrate ingestion supresses muscle protein breakdown via the anti-catabolic effects of insulin.
•Theoretically, if protein breakdown is supressed over several weeks to months, gains in lean muscle mass could be realized.
•Adverse effects when injected
•Possible development of insulin-dependent diabetes in a previously healthy athlete
Human growth hormone
•Stimulates bone and skeletal muscle growth
•Helps maintain blood glucose levels
•Stimulates the release of fatty acids from fat cells
•Little research has been done with athletes.
•Research with healthy elderly persons, as well as children and adults with growth hormone deficiencies, shows improvements in lean body tissue with decreases in body fat.
•Excess HGH after puberty causes acromegaly (a disfiguring disease characterized by a widening of the bones, arthritis, organ enlargement, and metabolic abnormalities).
•Abuse of HGH can also lead to diabetes in prone individuals; cardiovascular dysfunction; muscle, joint, and bone pain; hypertension; abnormal growth of organs; and accelerated osteoarthritis.
•Injections of EPO are associated with elevations in both hematocrit and hemoglobin.
•Health risks include increased risk of blood clotting, elevations in systolic blood pressure, a compromised thermoregulatory system, and dehydration during aerobic endurance events.
decrease heart rate and dilate arteries by blocking beta receptors
•Beta-blockers reduce anxiety and tremors during performance.
- can have a ergolytic effect: reducing max HR, o2 consumption
branched chain amino acids
-leucine is the key amino acid for increasing muscle protein synthesis.
essential amino acid, elevated nitric oxide levels.
Nutritional muscle buffers
Ability to regulate H+ concentration in skeletal muscle during high-intensity exercises.
•Studies examining L-carnitine's role as an ergogenic aid for increasing lipid oxidation have not shown clear efficacy.
•L-carnitine may enhance recovery from exercise.
•Importance of creatine to exercise
•The ability to rapidly rephosphorylate ADP is dependent on the enzyme creatine kinase and the availability of creatine phosphate (CP) within the muscle.
•Increases the creatine content of muscles by approximately 20%, but there is a saturation limit.
•Studies consistently show significant ergogenic benefits.
•increases maximal strength, power, and lean body mass in both trained and untrained populations
creating loading dose
20-25g for 5 days then can proceed to 2-5g/day
•Increases time to exhaustion
•Effects on sprint or power performance unclear
•Increased risk for heat illness
a sympathomimetic drug used in treating asthma
-when combined with caffeine, is able to improve aerobic endurance performance.
when combined with caffeine and other herbal products, improvements in exercise time to fatigue have been reported
Sets found in the same folder
CH. 15 *** pp slide
ch. 16 Exercise techniques for alternative modes a…
ch.1 structure and function of body syst…
ch. 17 Program Design for RT
Other sets by this creator
Finance Dictionary A-E
ch. 14 warm-up and flexibility
CH. 13 Administration, Scoring and Interpretation…
CH.12 Principles of Test Selection and Administrat…