• Hominids following Homo erectus • Includes "Homo heidelbergensis" • And others such as Neandertal
When did premodern humans exist?
The Pleistocene aka the Ice Age
When did most premodern hominids in this chapter live?
What is interglacial?
• Ice sheets retreating and becoming smaller • Certain migration routes reopened
Where did Middle Pleistocene Hominids disperse?
Throughout Old World
Premoderns generally succeeded Homo erectus except...
coexisted for long periods in Asia
What characteristics did middle pleistocene have?
• Earliest premoderns • Some Homo erectus characteristics • And modern features
• Premodern fossils from Africa and Europe • Placed within Homo heidelbergensis
Archaic homo sapiens
• Premoderns were recently considered an early, primitive, transitional "Homo sapiens" and called "Archaic Homo sapiens"
Who is the probable ancestor to both modern humans and Neandertals?
Premodern Humans of the Middle Pleistocene
1) Africa 2) Europe 3) Asia
What are the Premodern fossils found at several sites in South and East Africa?
Kabwe and Bodo
What is one of the earliest Homo heidelbergensis in Africa?
What parts of Europe are middle Pleistocene fossils found?
Gran Dolina Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos
What fossil was found in Gran Dolina?
Sima de los Huesos Morphology
Some indications of early Neandertal-like pattern
Where in Asia were fossils found?
Some isolated regional populations died out and others continued.. In Africa, they evolved into modern Homo sapiens: In Europe, they evolved into:
- Homo sapiens - Neandertal 1
The Levallois Technique
Technique for stone tool making
Middle Pleistocene Life Reconstruction of fire?
• Some evidence for controlled use of fire
Middle Pleistocene Life Reconstruction of shelter?
• Evidence of temporary shelters at several sites • Including Terra Amata site
• France • reconstruction of a shelter
• Germany (400,000 years ago) • Three preserved wooden spears • finely made and expertly balanced • Throwing spears for large animals. • Spears indicates advanced hunting
Hunting in the shelters?
Some strong cases for hunting especially the recent find at Schoningen
What are Neandertals?
Premodern Humans of the Late Pleistocene
What are classic Neandertals of Europe?
• Most Neander fossils found in Europe • In Europe more "robust" than other areas • Called "Classic" Neandertals in western Europe
What are some neandertal features?
• Brain is larger than today's humans • Cold weather adaptation • Brow ridges arched • Face projects • Robust, barrel-chested, powerful muscles • Shorter limbs • Adaptation to living in cold climate
Neandertal Discoveries in Western Europe?
La Chapelle-aux-Saints • Southwest France
Who is Macellin Boule?
• Famous paleontologist studied the La Chapelle skeleton • Unusually robust • Described find as brutish and bent-kneed and not fully bipedal
MORE RECENT Neandertal discoveries in Western Europe?
St. Cesaire • Some "Upper Paleolithic" tools • Neandertal borrowing tool making techniques from anatomically modern humans
• A cultural period usually associated with modern humans
Croatia • Kaprina • Vindija • among most recent Neandertals found • smaller browridge and slight chin development
Tabun Cave Kebara Cave Shanidar Cave
Israel • Contemporary with modern H. sapiens nearby
Israel • First "hyoid" bone found • (base of tongue)
Iraq • Deliberate burials • Severely injured person survived
• Teshik-Tash Site - Neandertal range extended eastward into Central Asia
Neandertal associated with what cultural period?
Neandertal associated with what stone industry?
What is Mousterian?
Neandertal associated with what technology?
• Used many flake tools • Bone, ivory, antler tools very rare
• Neandertals were successful hunters • Used close-proximity spears • No long distance weapons • Dangerous - many injuries • Numerous fractures, head and neck injuries Art • Neandertal artwork not common
Neandertal speech and symbolic behavior
• Prevailing consensus has been that Neandertals were capable of articulate speech.
• Neandertals deliberately buried their dead • Many placed in flexed position • Body bent with arms and legs drawn up to chest
Neandertal grave goods
• Neandertal graves • Not elaborate • Frequently lacked artifacts
Genetic evidence of neandertals: results of DNA comparison
• Neandertal seem more different from contemporary Homo sapiens (based on DNA) • Seem isolated from other hominins • Nuclear DNA confirms early divergence
First modern homo sapiens evolve where? And where do descendants spread?
Africa Old World
• All contemporaries are placed in this species • First are probably descendents of premodern humans • Particularly African populations of H. heidelbergensis
Three theories of Modern Human Origins
Complete Replacement Model The Partial Replacement Model The Regional Continuity Model
Complete Replacement Model
• Modern populations arose in Africa (only) • ONE species - no admixture • Migrated from Africa, replacing populations in Europe and Asia. • ("single origin")
• Evidence of African origin • Genetic data - living peoples • Mitochondrial DNA (inherited through mother) • Concluded the world's population • descended from single African lineage.
• Variation in DNA less compared to other primates • Bolsters complete replacement model
The Partial Replacement Model
• Gradual dispersal of H. sapiens sapiens out of Africa. • Modern humans mixed with local archaic populations in Eurasia • Some interbreeding
The Regional Continuity Model
• Local populations in Europe, Asia and Africa evolve into anatomically modern humans
• Gene flow between these archaic populations • Moderns humans not separate species • Never independent.
The earliest discoveries of modern humans in Africa
Omo Kibish Klasies River Mouth Cave Border Cave Herto
Earliest of the fully modern found in africa
Klasies River Mouth Cave
-Southern Africa on coast -humans appeared in East Africa and migrated to southern Africa
migration from east Africa to south Africa
• Well-preserved and well-dated H. sapiens fossils • Most conclusive evidence of African origin of modern humans
• Early modern H. sapiens sites • Sites in Israel • Skhul Cave • Qafzeh
Near East: Israel
Skhul Cave • Earliest good evidence anatomically modern humans out of Africa Qafzeh Cave Tabun Cave • is a nearby Neandertal site • Indicates modern H. sapiens and Neandertals occupations overlapped.
• Chinese paleoanthropologists see continuous evolution • from Homo erectus to archaic H. sapiens to AMH • Oppose complete replacement model
• Australia not connected to mainland -Lake Mungo earliest finds in Austrailia -Kow Swamp
Cro-Magnon (France) Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal)
• Most famous site early modern • Best known western European samples • France's earliest anatomically modern human • Discovered in 1868 in a shelter in southern France • An Upper Paleolithic industry
Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal)
• Mixture of traits • Best evidence for hybridization • Four-year-old child's skeleton • Some modern features • Some Neandertal features • Evidence of hybridization between • Neandertal and anatomically modern • Humans
• Homo erectus in Java survives a long time • Other population branched off from some early inhabitants of Indonesia
• Java • Small-bodied and small-brained hominid • Nicknamed "hobbits"
• Three feet tall • Probably descended from H. erectus populations • Isolated island population diverged • Natural selection favors reduced body size
Upper Paleolithic had Five cultural periods based on what?
Stone tool technologies
What is the late ice age?
Last glacial period of Ice Age
What is a terrain?
• Treeless tundra and steppe in Eurasia
Abundant pasture for herbivorous animals large hers grasslands
-near moscow -most spectacular burial
What are cultural innovations?
• Better shelters • Sewn tailored clothing • Increased use of bone, ivory, antler
Age of technological innovation?
• Anatomically modern humans • Upper Paleolithic • Invented new and specialized tools
• Most highly developed Upper Paleolithic industry • So delicate considered as possible "art"
Spear Thrower, harpoon, bow and arrow
• Spear thrower or "atlatl" • A hooked rod enhancing force and distance • Bow and arrow
• Common Upper Paleolithic tool • Pointed stone blade • Working wood, bone, and antler • Small chisel-like for engraving • Burins (chisel-like) to engrave bone
Upper Paleolithic Art
• Best known in Europe • Includes Africa, Australia
Art in Europe and other places
• Symbolic representations or "art" well known in Western Europe • Also known in Africa, , Australia
• Numerous small sculptures in Europe • Elaborate engravings
• Female figurines throughout Europe • Perhaps for fertility or ritual purposes
• Majority in France and Spain • People in other areas didn't use deep caves for art • Painted and carved on rock surfaces in open • Eroded away -Lascaux Cave, Altamira Cave, Grotte Chauvet
Art in Southern Africa
• Apollo 11 Rock Shelter (Namibia) • Blombos Cave • Pinnacle Point
Art in Central Africa
Katanda • Congo • Excavations show remarkable bone craftsmanship.
End of Upper Paleolithic
• Temperature rises, glaciers retreat • End of the Ice Age • Traditional prey animals disappear • (decrease in herds of large animals) • (grassland natural pastures replaced by forests) • Ice Age ends
• Idea of "race improvement" by forced sterilization
• Concept that behavior governed by biological(genetic) factors
• Populations differ with regard to the expression of one or more traits
• Characteristics influenced by several genes • Continuous range of expression
Typologies and classification and what is the more recent approach?
A) Outdated approach of identifying large geographical "groups" B) focus on examining allele frequencies
Anthropologists recognize that what is not a valid concept
Genetics over Phenotype
• Examination of actual genetic characteristics • Replaced traditional descriptions of superficial phenotypic characteristics
• Main focus of human variation studies • Characteristics with different phenotypic expressions are called polymorphisms. • A genetic trait is polymorphic if the locus that governs it has two or more alleles.
What are the clinical distributions of human polymorphisms?
• By 1960s study of "clinal distributions" of individual polymorphisms became important • A cline is a gradual change in the frequency of a trait or allele in populations dispersed over geographical space
Human biocultural evolution
• Humans live in cultural environments that are continually modified by their activities. • Evolutionary processes can be understood only within this cultural context.
Slash and burn agriculture example
- land-clearing practice - fields are abandoned
Sickle Cell Allele
• Stagnant pools rain water provided mosquito breeding areas close to human settlements. • The increase in the frequency of the sickle-cell allele
• The geographical distribution of lactose tolerance is related to a history of cultural dependence on fresh milk products.
• The study of the frequency of alleles, genotypes, and phenotypes in populations from a microevolutionary perspective. Used to understand microevolutionary patterns of human variation
• A gene pool is the total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population.
• The central theorem of population genetics. • The mathematical relationship expressing the predicted distribution of alleles in populations • Provides a tool to establish whether allele frequencies in a human population are changing.
Human variation is the result of adaptations to what?
• Environmental conditions
Physiological response to the environment operates at two levels:
Long-term: evolutionary changes Short-term: temporary physiological response is called acclimatization.
• Physiological responses to changes in the environment.
Ultraviolet Rays and Skin Damage
-Ultraviolet Rays penetrate the skin and can eventually damage DNA within skin cells. -Melanin (darker) protects
UV and Vitamin B
• UV decreases Vitamin B Folate production • Melanin protects
Lighter skin and vitamin D
• UV needed for Vitamin D production
Long-term adaptations to heat evolved in our ancestors:
- Sweat Glands - Vasodilation - Body form
Short-term responses to cold:
• Metabolic rate and shivering • Narrowing of blood vessels to reduce blood flow from the skin, vasoconstriction.
Multiple factors produce stress on the human body at higher altitudes:
• Hypoxia (reduced available oxygen)
• Caused by invading micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi. • Throughout evolution, disease has exerted selective pressures on human populations. • Disease influences the frequency of certain alleles that affect the immune response.
What are the cultural factors of infectious disease?
• Before 10-12,000 years ago all humans lived in small nomadic hunting and gathering groups • Minimal contact with vectors from refuse heaps
What are the vectors of infectious disease?
• Agents that serve to transmit disease from one carrier to another. • Mosquitoes are vectors for malaria, just as fleas are vectors for bubonic plague.
What is the endemic of infectious disease?
• Continuously present in a population. • Sufficient numbers of people must be present
Infectious disease from domesticated animals
• With settled living by domesticated animals • Diseases from cattle and fowl spread to humans
What is Zoonotic?
• Disease spread from animals to humans Pandemic • An extensive outbreak of disease affecting large numbers of individuals over a wide area; potentially a worldwide phenomenon.
Impact of infectious disease
• Increases in the prevalence of infectious disease may be due to overuse of antibiotics.