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ANT 2511 final exam

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Premodern humans
• Hominids following Homo erectus
• Includes "Homo heidelbergensis"
• And others such as Neandertal
When did premodern humans exist?
The Pleistocene aka the Ice Age
When did most premodern hominids in this chapter live?
Middle Pleistocene
What is interglacial?
• Ice sheets retreating and becoming smaller
• Certain migration routes reopened
Where did Middle Pleistocene Hominids disperse?
Throughout Old World
Premoderns generally succeeded Homo erectus except...
coexisted for long periods in Asia
What characteristics did middle pleistocene have?
• Earliest premoderns
• Some Homo erectus characteristics
• And modern features
Homo heidelbergensis
• Premodern fossils from Africa and Europe
• Placed within Homo heidelbergensis
Archaic homo sapiens
• Premoderns were recently considered an early, primitive, transitional "Homo sapiens" and called "Archaic Homo sapiens"
Who is the probable ancestor to both modern humans and Neandertals?
Homo heidelbergensis
Premodern Humans of the Middle Pleistocene
1) Africa
2) Europe
3) Asia
What are the Premodern fossils found at several sites in South and East Africa?
Kabwe and Bodo
What is one of the earliest Homo heidelbergensis in Africa?
Bodo
What parts of Europe are middle Pleistocene fossils found?
Gran Dolina
Atapuerca
Sima de los Huesos
What fossil was found in Gran Dolina?
Homo antecessor
Sima de los Huesos Morphology
Some indications of early Neandertal-like pattern
Where in Asia were fossils found?
China
Some isolated regional populations died out
and others continued..
In Africa, they evolved into modern Homo sapiens:
In Europe, they evolved into:
- Homo sapiens
- Neandertal 1
The Levallois Technique
Technique for stone tool making
Middle Pleistocene Life Reconstruction of fire?
• Some evidence for controlled use of fire
Middle Pleistocene Life Reconstruction of shelter?
• Evidence of temporary shelters at several sites
• Including Terra Amata site
Terra Amata?
• France
• reconstruction of a shelter
Schoningen
• Germany (400,000 years ago)
• Three preserved wooden spears
• finely made and expertly balanced
• Throwing spears for large animals.
• Spears indicates advanced hunting
Hunting in the shelters?
Some strong cases for hunting especially the recent find at Schoningen
What are Neandertals?
Premodern Humans of the Late Pleistocene
What are classic Neandertals of Europe?
• Most Neander fossils found in Europe
• In Europe more "robust" than other areas
• Called "Classic" Neandertals in western Europe
What are some neandertal features?
• Brain is larger than today's humans
• Cold weather adaptation
• Brow ridges arched
• Face projects
• Robust, barrel-chested, powerful muscles
• Shorter limbs
• Adaptation to living in cold climate
Neandertal Discoveries in Western Europe?
La Chapelle-aux-Saints
• Southwest France
Who is Macellin Boule?
• Famous paleontologist studied the La Chapelle skeleton
• Unusually robust
• Described find as brutish and bent-kneed and not fully bipedal
MORE RECENT Neandertal discoveries in Western Europe?
St. Cesaire
• Some "Upper Paleolithic" tools
• Neandertal borrowing tool making techniques from anatomically modern humans
Upper Paleolithic
• A cultural period usually associated with modern humans
Central Europe
Croatia
• Kaprina
• Vindija
• among most recent Neandertals found
• smaller browridge and slight chin development
Western Asia
Tabun Cave
Kebara Cave
Shanidar Cave
Tabun Cave
Israel
• Contemporary with modern H. sapiens nearby
Kebara Cave
Israel
• First "hyoid" bone found
• (base of tongue)
Shanidar Cave
Iraq
• Deliberate burials
• Severely injured person survived
Central Asia
• Teshik-Tash Site
- Neandertal range extended eastward into Central Asia
Neandertal associated with what cultural period?
"Middle Paleolithic"
Neandertal associated with what stone industry?
"Mousterian"
What is Mousterian?
Widespread
Neandertal associated with what technology?
• Used many flake tools
• Bone, ivory, antler tools very rare
Neandertal substinence
• Neandertals were successful hunters
• Used close-proximity spears
• No long distance weapons
• Dangerous - many injuries
• Numerous fractures, head and neck injuries
Art
• Neandertal artwork not common
Neandertal speech and symbolic behavior
• Prevailing consensus has been that Neandertals were capable of articulate speech.
Neandertail burials
• Neandertals deliberately buried their dead
• Many placed in flexed position
• Body bent with arms and legs drawn up to chest
Neandertal grave goods
• Neandertal graves
• Not elaborate
• Frequently lacked artifacts
Genetic evidence of neandertals: results of DNA comparison
• Neandertal seem more different from contemporary Homo sapiens (based on DNA)
• Seem isolated from other hominins
• Nuclear DNA confirms early divergence
First modern homo sapiens evolve where? And where do descendants spread?
Africa
Old World
Modern Homosapiens
• All contemporaries are placed in this species
• First are probably descendents of premodern humans
• Particularly African populations of H. heidelbergensis
Three theories of Modern Human Origins
Complete Replacement Model
The Partial Replacement Model
The Regional Continuity Model
Complete Replacement Model
• Modern populations arose in Africa (only)
• ONE species - no admixture
• Migrated from Africa, replacing populations in Europe and Asia.
• ("single origin")
Mitochondrial DNA
• Evidence of African origin
• Genetic data - living peoples
• Mitochondrial DNA (inherited through mother)
• Concluded the world's population
• descended from single African lineage.
Y chromosome
• Variation in DNA less compared to other primates
• Bolsters complete replacement model
Neandertal DNA
Distinctive
The Partial Replacement Model
• Gradual dispersal of H. sapiens sapiens out of Africa.
• Modern humans mixed with local archaic populations in Eurasia
• Some interbreeding
The Regional Continuity Model
• Local populations in Europe, Asia and Africa evolve into anatomically modern humans
Why similar
• Gene flow between these archaic populations
• Moderns humans not separate species
• Never independent.
The earliest discoveries of modern humans in Africa
Omo Kibish
Klasies River Mouth Cave
Border Cave
Herto
Omo Kibish
Earliest of the fully modern found in africa
Klasies River Mouth Cave
-Southern Africa on coast
-humans appeared in East Africa and migrated to southern Africa
Border Cave
migration from east Africa to south Africa
Herto
• Well-preserved and well-dated H. sapiens fossils
• Most conclusive evidence of African origin of modern humans
Near East
• Early modern H. sapiens sites
• Sites in Israel
• Skhul Cave
• Qafzeh
Near East: Israel
Skhul Cave
• Earliest good evidence anatomically modern humans out of Africa
Qafzeh Cave
Tabun Cave
• is a nearby Neandertal site
• Indicates modern H. sapiens and Neandertals occupations overlapped.
Asia
• Chinese paleoanthropologists see continuous evolution
• from Homo erectus to archaic H. sapiens to AMH
• Oppose complete replacement model
Austrailia
• Australia not connected to mainland
-Lake Mungo
earliest finds in Austrailia
-Kow Swamp
Western Europe
Cro-Magnon (France)
Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal)
Cro-Magnon (France)
• Most famous site early modern
• Best known western European samples
• France's earliest anatomically modern human
• Discovered in 1868 in a shelter in southern
France
• An Upper Paleolithic industry
Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal)
• Mixture of traits
• Best evidence for hybridization
• Four-year-old child's skeleton
• Some modern features
• Some Neandertal features
• Evidence of hybridization between
• Neandertal and anatomically modern
• Humans
Homo floriensis
• Homo erectus in Java survives a long time
• Other population branched off from some early inhabitants of Indonesia
Flores
• Java
• Small-bodied and
small-brained hominid
• Nicknamed "hobbits"
Homo floresiensis
• Three feet tall
• Probably descended from H. erectus populations
• Isolated island population diverged
• Natural selection favors reduced body size
Upper Paleolithic had Five cultural periods based on what?
Stone tool technologies
What is the late ice age?
Last glacial period of Ice Age
What is a terrain?
• Treeless tundra and steppe in Eurasia
Herbivores
Abundant pasture for herbivorous animals
large hers
grasslands
Sungir
-near moscow
-most spectacular burial
What are cultural innovations?
• Better shelters
• Sewn tailored clothing
• Increased use of bone, ivory, antler
Age of technological innovation?
• Anatomically modern humans
• Upper Paleolithic
• Invented new and specialized tools
Solutrean Blades
• Most highly developed Upper Paleolithic industry
• So delicate considered as possible "art"
Spear Thrower, harpoon, bow and arrow
• Spear thrower or "atlatl"
• A hooked rod enhancing force and distance
• Bow and arrow
Burins
• Common Upper Paleolithic tool
• Pointed stone blade
• Working wood, bone, and antler
• Small chisel-like for engraving
• Burins (chisel-like) to engrave bone
Upper Paleolithic Art
• Best known in Europe
• Includes Africa, Australia
Art in Europe and other places
• Symbolic representations or "art" well known in Western Europe
• Also known in Africa, , Australia
Portable Art
• Numerous small sculptures in Europe
• Elaborate engravings
Venuses
• Female figurines throughout Europe
• Perhaps for fertility or ritual purposes
Cave Art
• Majority in France and Spain
• People in other areas didn't use deep caves for art
• Painted and carved on rock surfaces in open
• Eroded away
-Lascaux Cave, Altamira Cave, Grotte Chauvet
Art in Southern Africa
• Apollo 11 Rock Shelter (Namibia)
• Blombos Cave
• Pinnacle Point
Art in Central Africa
Katanda
• Congo
• Excavations show remarkable bone craftsmanship.
End of Upper Paleolithic
• Temperature rises, glaciers retreat
• End of the Ice Age
• Traditional prey animals disappear
• (decrease in herds of large animals)
• (grassland natural pastures replaced by forests)
• Ice Age ends
Eugenics
• Idea of "race improvement" by forced sterilization
Biological determinism
• Concept that behavior governed by biological(genetic) factors
Polytypic Species
• Populations differ with regard to the expression of one or more traits
Polygenic characteristics
• Characteristics influenced by several genes
• Continuous range of expression
Typologies and classification and what is the more recent approach?
A) Outdated approach of identifying large geographical "groups"
B) focus on examining allele frequencies
Anthropologists recognize that what is not a valid concept
Race
Genetics over Phenotype
• Examination of actual genetic characteristics
• Replaced traditional descriptions of superficial phenotypic characteristics
Human polymorphisms
• Main focus of human variation studies
• Characteristics with different phenotypic expressions are called polymorphisms.
• A genetic trait is polymorphic if the locus that governs it has two or more alleles.
What are the clinical distributions of human polymorphisms?
• By 1960s study of "clinal distributions" of individual polymorphisms became important
• A cline is a gradual change in the frequency of a trait or allele in populations dispersed over geographical space
Human biocultural evolution
• Humans live in cultural environments that are continually modified by their activities.
• Evolutionary processes can be understood only within this cultural context.
Slash and burn agriculture example
- land-clearing practice
- fields are abandoned
Sickle Cell Allele
• Stagnant pools rain water provided mosquito breeding areas close to human settlements.
• The increase in the frequency of the sickle-cell allele
Lactose Intolerance
• The geographical distribution of lactose tolerance is related to a history of cultural dependence on fresh milk products.
Population genetics
• The study of the frequency of alleles, genotypes, and phenotypes in populations from a microevolutionary perspective.
Used to understand microevolutionary patterns of human variation
Gene Pool
• A gene pool is the total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population.
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
• The central theorem of population genetics.
• The mathematical relationship expressing the predicted distribution of alleles in populations
• Provides a tool to establish whether allele frequencies in a human population are changing.
Human variation is the result of adaptations to what?
• Environmental conditions
Physiological response to the environment operates at two levels:
Long-term: evolutionary changes
Short-term: temporary physiological response is called acclimatization.
Acclimitization
• Physiological responses to changes in the environment.
Ultraviolet Rays and Skin Damage
-Ultraviolet Rays penetrate the skin and can eventually damage DNA within skin cells.
-Melanin (darker) protects
UV and Vitamin B
• UV decreases Vitamin B Folate production
• Melanin protects
Lighter skin and vitamin D
• UV needed for Vitamin D production
Long-term adaptations to heat evolved in our ancestors:
- Sweat Glands
- Vasodilation
- Body form
Bergmann's Rule
Body size
Allen's Rule
Appendages
Short-term responses to cold:
• Metabolic rate and shivering
• Narrowing of blood vessels to reduce blood flow from the skin, vasoconstriction.
Multiple factors produce stress on the human body at higher altitudes:
• Hypoxia (reduced available oxygen)
Infectious disease
• Caused by invading micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
• Throughout evolution, disease has exerted selective pressures on human populations.
• Disease influences the frequency of certain alleles that affect the immune response.
What are the cultural factors of infectious disease?
• Before 10-12,000 years ago all humans lived in small nomadic hunting and gathering groups
• Minimal contact with vectors from refuse heaps
What are the vectors of infectious disease?
• Agents that serve to transmit disease from one carrier to another.
• Mosquitoes are vectors for malaria, just as fleas are vectors for bubonic plague.
What is the endemic of infectious disease?
• Continuously present in a population.
• Sufficient numbers of people must be present
Infectious disease from domesticated animals
• With settled living by domesticated animals
• Diseases from cattle and fowl spread to humans
What is Zoonotic?
• Disease spread from animals to humans
Pandemic
• An extensive outbreak of disease affecting large numbers of individuals over a wide area; potentially a worldwide phenomenon.
Impact of infectious disease
• Increases in the prevalence of infectious disease may be due to overuse of antibiotics.