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Cooper Chapter 1
Terms in this set (35)
A systematic approach to understanding natural phenomena--as evidenced by description, prediction, and control-- that relies on determinism as its fundamental assumption, empiricism as its prime directive, experimentation as its basic strategy, replication as its necessary requirement for believability, parsimony as its conservative value, and philosophic doubt as its guiding conscience.
Consists of a collection of facts about the observed events that can be quantified, classified, and examined for possible relations with other known facts.
A second level of scientific understanding occurs when repeated observations reveal that two events consistently covary with each other.
Third and highest level of scientific understanding. By arranging conditions in ways specified by laws of a system, we not only predict, we control: we "cause" an event to occur or to assume certain characteristics.
exists when a well-controlled experiment demonstrates that a specific change in one event (the DV) is reliably produced by specific manipulations of another event (the IV), and that the change in the DV was unlikely to be the result of other extraneous factors (confounding variables).
All scientists presume that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which all phenomena occur as the result of other events. In other words, events do not just happen willy-nilly; they are related in systematic ways to other factors, which are themselves physical phenomena amenable to scientific investigation.
The practice of objective observation and measurement of the phenomena of interest. Objectivity in this sense means "independent of the individual prejudices, tastes, and private opinions of the scientist. Results of empirical methods are objective in that they are open to anyone's observation and do not depend on the subjective belief of the individual scientist.
A controlled comparison of some measure of the phenomenon of interest (the DV) under two or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (the IV) differs from one condition to another.
denotes demonstration of functional relations between environmental variables and behavior.
repeating of experiments (as well as repeating IV conditions within experiments).
Requires that all simple, logical explanations for the phenomenon under investigation be ruled out experimentally or conceptually, before more complex or abstract explanations are considered.
requires that scientist continually question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact.
the philosophy of the science of behavior, basic research is the province of the experimental analysis of behavior, and developing a technology for improving behavior is the concern of ABA.
Presumed but unobserved entities that could not be manipulated in an experiment, Skinner continued to look in the environment for the determinants of behavior and did not have apparent antecedent causes.
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Analysis of operant behavior "with its unique relation to the environment presents a separate important field of investigation"
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