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What is a Vaccine?

A vaccine is a suspension of microbes, which have been attenuated, killed, and or fractioned, and produces an immune response upon injection into a host.

What is attenuated?


Types of Vaccines

Attenuated, whole-agent
Inactivated, whole-agent

Attenuated, whole-agent Vaccine

*Living Agent, usually virus
*Agent usually reproduces in host, therefore, generally provides most effective and long-lived immunity.
*Microbe is either avirulent or less virulent than the disease-causing agent
*Risk of Back mutation

What is vaccine back-mutation?

Risk of back-mutation to virulent forms may cause disease, particularly in an immunocompromised recipient

Examples of Attenuated, whole-agent vaccines.

Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)
Oral polio (Sabin)' small pox, TB, nasal influenza vaccine.

Inactivated whole-agent Vaccine

Microbe is killed, usually by chemical treatment with phenol or formalin.

Examples of Inactivated whole-agent Vaccine

Rabies and injected influenza vaccine
Injected polio (Salk)

Why get vaccinated each year for seasonal flu?

In order to be protected against the strains that have mutated.


Inactivated Toxins

Examples of Toxoid Vaccines

Tetanus and diptheria

Subunit Vaccine

Microbes and fragmented (acellular)
This vaccine has the lowest risk for side effects

Examples of subunit vaccines

Hepatitis B
Produced by genetically-modified yeast.

Conjugated Vaccines

Microbial polysaccharides are coupled with proteins to enhance T-cell response

Example of Conjugated Vaccine

Haemophilus influenza b

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