65 terms

Chapter 10

Which of the following statements regarding viruses is false?
A virus is generally considered to be alive because it is cellular and can reproduce on its own.
Which of the following people conducted the experiments that demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophages?
Hershey and Chase
one type of virus that infects bacteria is called a
When a T2 bacteriophage infects an Escherichia coli cell, Which part of the phage enters the bacterial cytoplasm?
only the DNA
The way that genetic material of a bacteriophage enters a bacterium is most like the way that
a drug is injected with a hypodermic needle.
the monomers of DNA and RNA are
Which of the following statements regarding DNA is False?
DNA uses the nitogenous base uracil
which of the following statements regarding RNA is false?
RNA uses the sugar dextrose.
Which of the following statements regarding the structure of DNA is false?
The sequence of nucleotides along the length of a DNA stand is restricted by the base-pairing rules.
How would the shape of a DNA molecule change if adenine paired with guanine and cytosine paired with Thymine?
The DNA Molecules would have irregular widths along its length
the shape of a DNA molecule is most like
a twisted rope ladder
Which of the following statements regarding a DNA double helix is always true?
the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine
DNA replication
uses each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation pf a new strand.
If one strand of DNA is CGGTAC, the corresponding stand would be
The copying mechanism if DNA is most like
carving a figure out of wood
When one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains
50% of the parent DNA
Multiple origins of replication on the DNA molecule of eukaryotic cells serve to
shorten the time necessary for DNA replication
Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the elongation of a new DNA stand?
DNA Polymerase
Why does a DNA Strand grow only in a 5'to 3' direction?
because DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing molecule
Which of the following options best describes the flow pf information when a gene directs the synthesis of a cellular compound?
The transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called
The "one gene-one polypeptide" theory states that
the function of an individual gene is a dictate the production of a specific polypeptide
Experiments have demonstrated that the "words" of the genetic code ( the units that specify amino acids) are
Three-nucleotide sequences
The Directions for each amino acid in a polypeptide are indicated by a codon that consists of ______ nucleotides in an RNA molecule
We would expect that a 15-nucleotide sequence will the production of a polypeptide that consists of
4 amino acids
A base substitution mutation in a gene does not always result in a different protein. Which of the following factors could account for this?
the fact that some amino acids are specified from more than one codon.
Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the linking together of RNA nucleotides to form RNA?
RNA polymerase
Which of the following occurs when RNA polymerase attaches to promoter DNA?
initiation of a new RNA molecule
_____ marks the end of a gene and causes transcription to stop.
A terminator
Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells?
in the cytoplasm
Which of the following statements about eukaryotic RNA is true?
Exons are spliced together
Which of the following takes places during translation?
the conversation of genetic information from the language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins
Which of the following is a function of tRNA?
joining to only one specific types of amino acid
Which of the following is NOT needed in order for translation to occur?
DNA template
Which of the following statements about ribosomes is false?
The Ribosomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the same in structure and function
Which of the following statements is false?
An mRNA molecule transcribed from DNA is shorter than the genetic message it carries
Which of the following statements regarding the flow of genetic information is false?
Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called
a mutation
Consider the following sentence: "The dog did not eat." Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a reading frame mutation?
the dod idn ote at.
a physical or chemical agent that changes the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called a
A protein shell enclosing a viral genome is known as a
Which of the following features characterizes the lytic cycle of a viral infection?
The cycle typically leads to the lysis of the host cell
Which of the following statements is false?
The lysogenic cycle typically results in the rapid lysis of all infected cells
Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a
The envelope of a flu virus
helps the virus enter the cell
Which of the following statements about herpesviruses is false?
Herpesviruses reproduce inside the host cell's mitochondria
Which of the following option most accurately lists the sequence of events in translation?
Codon recognition--->peptide bond formation---> termination -->translocation
Which of the following statements about plant viruses is false?
to infect a plant, virus must first get the plant's epidermis
Which of the following statements regarding viral diseases is false?
Very few new human diseases have originated in other animals because the genetic differences are too great.
What will be the most likely cause of a new avian flu pandemic like the 1918-1919 flu pandemic that killed approximately 40 million people worldwide?
easy viral transmission from person to person
What kind of virus is HIV
a retrovirus
Which of the following enzymes does HIV use to synthesize DNA on an RNA template?
reverse transcriptase
HIV does the greatest damage to
White blood cells
How do viroids harm the plants that are infected with them?
by altering the plants' growth
Which of the following statements about the treatment of prevention for a prion infection is true?
There is no known treatment or cure for prion infections
In the late1920's, Frederick Griffith conducted an experiment in which he mixed the dead cells of a bacterial strain that can cause pneumonia with live cells pf a bacterial strain that cannot. When he cultured the live cells, some of the daughter colonies proved able to cause pneumonia. Which of the following processes of bacteria DNA transfer does this experiment demonstrate?
occurs when a phase transfers bacterial DNA from one bacterium to another
is the direct transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another
Conjugation, transformation, and transduction are all ways that bacteria
increase their genetic diversity
A friend accidentally sends an email to you that contains a computer virus from his computer. Without knowing it, you infect your computer with the virus when you open the email. This process of spreading the computer virus using emails is most which of the following processes?
When a bacterial cell with a chromosome-borne F factor conjugates with another bacterium, how is the transmitted donor DNA incorporated into the recipients genome?
It is substituted for the equivalent portion of the recipients chromosome by the process of crossing over
in many bacteria, genes that confer resistance to antibiotics are carried on
R plasmids
Conjugation between a bacterium that an F factor (F-) and a bacterium that has an F factor on its chromosome (F+) would typically produce which of the following results?
The F+ bacterium ends up with a recombinant chromosome that carries some genes from the F-bacterium, and the F- bacterium ends up with an unaltered chromosome
A functional F factor is an R plasmid must contain all of the following elements except
a site for making the proteins needed for conjugation
Which of the following human activities has contributed to an increase in the number of bacteria having R plasmids?
Heavy use of antibiotics in medicine and in agriculure