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Inflammation and Healing (Chp. 5)
Terms in this set (78)
What are the four functions to the first line of defense?
2.) Mechanical Barrier
3.) Unbroken skin and mucous membranes
4.) Secretions such as tears, saliva and gastric juices
What are the four functions of the second line of defense?
In Phagocytosis of the second line of defense, what two cells are involved?
Limit the effects of injury or dangerous agent?
Protect uninfected cells against the virus?
What are the two functions of the third line of defense?
1.) Specific defense with memory
2.) Production of specific antibodies or cell-mediated immunity
A protective mechanism and important basic concept in pathophysiology?
Infection is can be the cause for inflammation? T/F
Inflammation is what type of response to tissue injury?
What are the five cardinal signs for inflammation?
2.) Swelling (Edema)
5.) Sometimes loss of function
What are the four chemical mediators in the inflammatory response?
4.) Complement System
What is the source for the chemical histamine?
Mast Cell Granules
What is the source for the chemical Cytokines?
T lymphocytes, Macrophages
What is the source for the chemical Bradykinin?
Activation of plasma protein (kinogen)
What is the source for the chemical Complement System?
Activation of plasma protein cascade
Vasodilation and increase in capillary permeability, edema?
Chemotaxis, Induce Fever, Leukocytosis?
Pain, vasodilation, increased capillary permeability?
Vasodilation and increased capillary permeability, chemotaxis, increased histamine release?
What are the two main functions of a Vascular Event?
2.) Increase Capillary Permeability (leaky)
A sympathetic nerve reflex will happen to cause what?
Increased blood flow (hyperemia --> erythema)
- Brings WBC's and immune proteins to area
During the increased capillary permeability (leaky) stage of the vascular event, what wbc invade tissue spaces and begin phagocytosis?
During the increased capillary permeability (leaky) stage of the vascular event, what increases and escapes into tissue spaces to dilute toxins and bring antibodies into the area?
What forms a fibrin mesh around area to localize injurious agent during the increased capillary permeability stage?
What are the four functions of the Cellular Events?
Migration of leukocytes to inflamed area?
Neutrophils first to appear followed by what two types of cells?
Collect along capillary wall and then migrate into interstitial area?
What 2 cells help perform Phagocytosis to prepare for healing?
- Macrophages (Monocytes)
Phagocytosis begins to get rid of what three things?
- Foreign Body
- Dead cells and debris
What are the the five Local Effects of Inflammation?
1.) Redness (Erythema)
3.) Swelling (Edema)
5.) Loss of Function
What is the process of Redness and Warmth?
Histamine --> Vasodilation --> Increased Blood Flow (Hyperemia)
What is the process of Swelling?
Histamine ---> Increased capillary permeability --> fluid and proteins into interstitial spaces --> edema
What is the process of Loss of Function?
Pain and swelling --> decreased use of body part
Collection of interstitial fluid formed in inflamed area?
What are the four types of Exudate?
4.) Hemorrhagic Exudate
Watery, consists primarily of fluid, some proteins, & WBCs
- I.e burns, allergic reactions
Thick, sticky, high cell and fibrin content; increase risk of scar tissue
Thick, yellow-green, contains more leukocytes, cell debris, and microorganisms; referred to as "pus"
Localized pocket of purulent exudate in solid tissue?
Present when blood vessels are damaged?
What are the 7 systemic effects of inflammation?
1.) Fever (Pyrexia)
2.) Malaise - Vague, feeling unwell
5. Myalgia - Pain
7.) Nausea and vomiting
What are 5 types of Diagnostic Testing?
2.) Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
3.) C-reactive Protein (CRP)
4.) Circulating Plasma Proteins
5.) Cell Enzymes
Increased WBC count?
% of each type of WBC?
Actue Inflammation; bacterial infection?
Chronic Inflammation; Viral infection?
Elevated in infection/inflammation?
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Appears with acute inflammation and necrosis within 24-48 hrs?
C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
What three proteins get by Capillary Premeability?
Circulating Plasma Proteins
Released from necrotic cells and enter tissues fluid/blood; some may indicate location of inflammation?
What are two types of Potential Complications?
2.) Skeletal Muscle Spasm
- Microorganisms can more easily penetrate edematous tissues
- Some microbes resist phagocytosis
- The inflammatory exudate also provides an excellent medium for microorganisms
- May be initiated by inflammation
- Protective response to pain
Skeletal Muscle Spasm
Follows acute episode of inflammation? Less swelling and exudate
What cells are more present in Chronic Inflammation?
Continued tissue destruction may cause?
Small mass of cells with a necrotic center?
May develop around foreign object?
May result from severe or prolonged inflammation?
What is Ulcer formation caused by?
Necrosis and lack of cell regulation that causes erosion of the tissue
What are the 5 significants of Scar Tissue Formation and Complications?
1.) Tissue Not Functional
2.) Contractures and obstructions
Loss of normal cells and lack of specialized structures or organization?
Tissue not Functional
What are some examples of loss of normal cells?
1.) Hair follicles
- May cause shortening or narrowing of structures (stenosis)?
- Restricts movement
Contractures and Obstructions
Bands of scar tissue joining 2 surfaces normally separated?
Overgrowth of fibrous tissue leading to hard ridges or keloid formation?
Blood supply may be impaired around the scar; leads to further tissue breakdown and possible ulceration?
What are the three types of Healing?
- Minimal tissue damage
- Damage cells recover and tissue returns to normal
- Ex. Burns
- Damaged tissue replaced with cells that are functional?
- Cells are capable of mitosis
- Usually in extensive damage or cells incapable of mitosis I.e brain, myocardium
- Granulation tissue forms
- Functional tissue replaced by scar tissue
- Loss of function
What are the 6 steps in the Healing Process by 1st intention?
1.) Occurs in Surgical Incisions
2.) Wound is clean
3.) No foreign material or necrotic tissue
4.) Edges are close together with minimal gap
5.) Heals quickly
6.) Suture/Staples have this result
What are the 5 steps in the Healing Process by 2nd Intention?
1.) Occurs when there is a large break in tissue
2.) Usually, more inflammation
3.) Infection may be present
4.) Longer healing period
5.) Formation of more scar tissue
What are 7 factors the delay healing?
1.) Advanced Age
2.) Poor Nutrition
4.) Circulatory problems
5.) Certain chronic diseases
6.) Irritation, bleeding, infection
7.) Certain drugs (Glucocorticoids), Chemotherapy
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