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94 terms

Microbes and the process of infection

Chapter 7
STUDY
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abcess
Localized collection of pus
acquired immunity
disease immunity established through cellular memory following exposure to the disease antigen
active immunity
production of antibodies which combat a specific disease. acquired by contracting the disease or by vaccination
aerobes
organisms that need oxygen to survive
aerosol droplets
a droplet of moisture small enough to remain suspended in the air, it can carry microorganisms with in it
anaerobes
bacteria that grow in the absence of oxygen and are destroyed by oxygen
anaphylactic shock
a severe and rapid and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reaction to a substance (especially a vaccine or penicillin or shellfish or insect venom) to which the organism has become sensitized by previous exposure
antibotic
a chemical agent used specifically for the treatment of bacterial infection
antibiotic resistant
a microorganism that is able to resist destruction by antimicrobial therapy
antibodies
complex glycoproteins produced by the immune system that are formed in response to antigens, an antibody makes contact with an antigen to destroy or control it
antigens
non-self substances that trigger the immune system to launch defense
antimicrobial therapy
use of antimicrobial drugs to combat an infection
archaea
single-celled prokaryotes
autoinfection
the spread of infection from one part of the body to another part
bacilli
Rod shaped bacteria
bacteriology
Study of bacteria
bacteriophage
a virus that invades bacterial cells and can replicate from within the cell
bacterium
a unicelluar microorganism with a rigid cell wa
binomial system
Identifying organisms by their genus and species names
bioburden
a measure of the number of bacterial colonies on a surface
capsule
a surface layer on some cells that resist chemicals and the invasion of viruses , called the slime layer
carrier
an individual who harbors disease microbes and is capable of transmiting the disease to others but may not show signs of the infection
cell theory
1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 3. All cells are produced from other cells.
cell wall
a rigid structure that surroundscertain types of cells
chromatin
a protein substance containing the genetic code of the cell
chromosomes
double strands of specially paired proteins that contain the genetic code of a cell
chronic infection
an infection that progresses and persists over a long period of time
cocci
round or spherical shaped bacteria that occurs in chains, pairs and clusters
colony
a group of microbes- usually refers to the normal growth pattern of bacteria
commensalism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one uses the other for physiological needs but causes no harm
community- acquired infection
infectious disease aquired in the community rather than in a health care facility
contaminated
a surface, substance, or tissue that is not completely free of microorganisms
cross- contamination
the sreading of infectio from one person to another or from an object to a person
culture
the process of growing a microbe in a laboratory setting so that it can be studied and tested
culture and sensitivity
a test in which a specific sample of bacteria is grown in the laboratory in the presence of various antibacteial agents to test the bacteria's sensitivity to them
cystitis
Infection of the bladder
cytoplasm
substance contained within the cell which contains a fluid called cystosol, and functional" organs" of the cell
dehiscence
Separation or bursting open of a surgical wound
diaphragm
mechanism for adjusting the amount of light entering the microscope
diffussion
uniform dispersal of particles in a solution or across a membrane
direct transmission
This type of transmission involves physical contact between the source of infection and the new host. _____ contact with body fluids, skin, or mucous membranes.
droplet nuclei
dried remnants of previously moist secretions containing microorganisms. are an important source of disease transmission
endocytosis
the process by which a cell surrounds and engulfs substances
endoplasmic reticulum
an extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the nucleus
endospore
...
endotoxins
toxic substances that made of lipids and carbohydrates associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria
entry site
in microbial transmission,the sites where microorganisms enter the body
eukaryote
a characteristic cell surrounded by a membrane and containing complex organs for metablism and reproduction
eviseration
when organs protrude through a surgical incision
exostosis
a process in which substances are removed from a cell
exotoxins
toxic (poisonous) substances secreted by bacterial cells during their growth.
facultative
can live with or without oxygen
fomite
an inanimate object or substance that is capable of transmitting infectious organisms from one individual to another.
golgi apparatus
an organelle that sorts, modifies, and packages proteins for transport within a cell or to other cells
gram stain
Differential staining procedure that allows categorization of bacteria into two groups (gram-positive and gram-negative) based on their ability to retain crystal violet when decolorized with an organic solvent such as ethanol.
host
an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite
immunity
your body's ability to resist the germs that cause a particular disease
infection
A condition that occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage cells.
inflammation
a response of body tissues to injury or irritation
lysogenesis
the process whereby viruses replicate their genetic material and them cause the host cell to rupture , releasing the genetic material and forming new virions
lysosome
an organelle capable of releasing enzymes to kill the cell
microbiology
the study of microbes, or organisms that require a microscope for observation
mitochondrion
organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated; found in all eukaryotes; has two membranes (inner and outer)
mycotic
referring to fungi
nonpathogenic
does not cause disease
nosocomial infection
an infection acquired in a hospital or other healthcare facility; also known as hospital-acquired infection (HAI).
nucleoid
Region where the prokaryotic cell's DNA is located (not enclosed by a membrane)
nucleolus
located inside the nucleus, and important in cell reproduction.
nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
obligate aerobe
an organism that needs oxygen in order to live
obligate anerobe
bacteria that are kiled by oxygen and can survive only in oxygen-free environments.
parasite
An organism that lives inside or on another organism and takes food from the organism in or on which it lives.
pathogen
disease causing microorganism
passive transport
movement of substances or liquid by diffusion or osmosis
pathogenicity
ability to cause disease
pathology
study of disease
phagocyte
a cell that ingests and destroys (digests) foreign matter or microorganisms
phagocytosis
the process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
pilli
a rodlike attachment extendind from the cell membrane that is capable of attaching to another cell to transfer genethic material
prion
infectious proteins substance that is resistant to common sterilaztion methods
prokaryotes
cells that do not contain nuclei
resident microorganisms
normal flora
spirochetes
curved or spiral shaped bacteria
spore
one-celled reproductive cell that is usually resistant to harsh environmental conditions and may remain dormant for long periods
staining
the process of coloring microbial speicmens so that they can be seen with the optical microscope
standard precautions
precautions developed by the CDC that ensures that unversial precautions and body substance isolation practices
sterile
free from germs
suppurative
containing or producing pus
symobiosis
2 species live together in an intimate, often permanent association which may or may not be beneficial to both participants, some are obligatory
vacuoles
celluar compartments formed by the pinching off of the endomembrane
vector
any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease
virology
study of viruses
virulence
The degree to which a pathogen is capable of causing a disease.
virus
a tiny, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell