disease immunity established through cellular memory following exposure to the disease antigen
production of antibodies which combat a specific disease. acquired by contracting the disease or by vaccination
a droplet of moisture small enough to remain suspended in the air, it can carry microorganisms with in it
a severe and rapid and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reaction to a substance (especially a vaccine or penicillin or shellfish or insect venom) to which the organism has become sensitized by previous exposure
complex glycoproteins produced by the immune system that are formed in response to antigens, an antibody makes contact with an antigen to destroy or control it
a surface layer on some cells that resist chemicals and the invasion of viruses , called the slime layer
an individual who harbors disease microbes and is capable of transmiting the disease to others but may not show signs of the infection
1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 3. All cells are produced from other cells.
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one uses the other for physiological needs but causes no harm
community- acquired infection
infectious disease aquired in the community rather than in a health care facility
the sreading of infectio from one person to another or from an object to a person
the process of growing a microbe in a laboratory setting so that it can be studied and tested
culture and sensitivity
a test in which a specific sample of bacteria is grown in the laboratory in the presence of various antibacteial agents to test the bacteria's sensitivity to them
substance contained within the cell which contains a fluid called cystosol, and functional" organs" of the cell
This type of transmission involves physical contact between the source of infection and the new host. _____ contact with body fluids, skin, or mucous membranes.
dried remnants of previously moist secretions containing microorganisms. are an important source of disease transmission
an extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the nucleus
toxic substances that made of lipids and carbohydrates associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria
a characteristic cell surrounded by a membrane and containing complex organs for metablism and reproduction
an inanimate object or substance that is capable of transmitting infectious organisms from one individual to another.
an organelle that sorts, modifies, and packages proteins for transport within a cell or to other cells
Differential staining procedure that allows categorization of bacteria into two groups (gram-positive and gram-negative) based on their ability to retain crystal violet when decolorized with an organic solvent such as ethanol.
the process whereby viruses replicate their genetic material and them cause the host cell to rupture , releasing the genetic material and forming new virions
organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated; found in all eukaryotes; has two membranes (inner and outer)
an infection acquired in a hospital or other healthcare facility; also known as hospital-acquired infection (HAI).
bacteria that are kiled by oxygen and can survive only in oxygen-free environments.
An organism that lives inside or on another organism and takes food from the organism in or on which it lives.
a rodlike attachment extendind from the cell membrane that is capable of attaching to another cell to transfer genethic material
one-celled reproductive cell that is usually resistant to harsh environmental conditions and may remain dormant for long periods
the process of coloring microbial speicmens so that they can be seen with the optical microscope
precautions developed by the CDC that ensures that unversial precautions and body substance isolation practices
2 species live together in an intimate, often permanent association which may or may not be beneficial to both participants, some are obligatory