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What is 1 + 3?
Gross Anatomy--Vertebral Column and Spinal Cord
how many bones in the coccyx
a defect allowing part of a verte bral arch to be separate from its body
Failure of fusion of the halves of the arch; usually occurs in L5 and/ or s1
exaggerated thoracic curvature--humpback or hunchback
connect laminae of adjacent vertebra
Bind up the anterior surface of the vertebral bodies, runs up and down
attaches all of the tips of the spinous processes together
attaches to the sides of the the spinous processes and runs up and down connecting them all
posterior longitudinal ligament
binds posterior surfaces of bodies and discs
known as primary curves because you are born with these, thoracic, sacral, and coccygeal
known as secondary b/c they develop later on, cervical and lumbar portions
2 joints of the vertebral column
Diarthrosis(synovial)--which involve the articular processes of the vertebrae, and the costal joints
2 parts of the intervertebral disc
anulus fibrosus--the outer part
nucleus pulposus which is the inner softer gelatinous portion that shrinks and is a remnant of the notochord
Remember the ligaments that are a part of this joint are the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
3 synovial joints in the vertebral column
zygapophyseal--ligaments-->supraspinous, interspinous, ligamentum flavum and intertransverse
Termination of the spinal cord
the end is known as the CONUS MEDULLARIS, usually ends between L1 and L2 but can be T12 to L3.
2 enlarments of the spinal cord
Lumbar enlargement (L1 to S4) which is after the conus meduallaris
both happen in order to innervate the extremities (upper and lower)
Collection of dorsal and ventral roots of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves, they start below the conus medullaris and exit their respective intervertebral foramina
What is the subarachnoid space called from L2-S2
the lumbar cistern.