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how many bones in the coccyx

4 bones


a defect allowing part of a verte bral arch to be separate from its body

Spine Bifida

Failure of fusion of the halves of the arch; usually occurs in L5 and/ or s1


exaggerated thoracic curvature--humpback or hunchback

Ligamentum Flaum

connect laminae of adjacent vertebra

anterior longitudinal

Bind up the anterior surface of the vertebral bodies, runs up and down

supraspinous ligament

attaches all of the tips of the spinous processes together

Interspinous ligament

attaches to the sides of the the spinous processes and runs up and down connecting them all

posterior longitudinal ligament

binds posterior surfaces of bodies and discs

anteriorly concave

known as primary curves because you are born with these, thoracic, sacral, and coccygeal

anteriorly convex

known as secondary b/c they develop later on, cervical and lumbar portions

2 joints of the vertebral column


Diarthrosis(synovial)--which involve the articular processes of the vertebrae, and the costal joints

2 parts of the intervertebral disc

anulus fibrosus--the outer part

nucleus pulposus which is the inner softer gelatinous portion that shrinks and is a remnant of the notochord

Remember the ligaments that are a part of this joint are the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments

3 synovial joints in the vertebral column

zygapophyseal--ligaments-->supraspinous, interspinous, ligamentum flavum and intertransverse

Termination of the spinal cord

the end is known as the CONUS MEDULLARIS, usually ends between L1 and L2 but can be T12 to L3.

2 enlarments of the spinal cord

Cervical Enlargement(C4-T1)
Lumbar enlargement (L1 to S4) which is after the conus meduallaris

both happen in order to innervate the extremities (upper and lower)

Cauda Equina

Collection of dorsal and ventral roots of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves, they start below the conus medullaris and exit their respective intervertebral foramina

What is the subarachnoid space called from L2-S2

the lumbar cistern.

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