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18 terms

Gross Anatomy--Vertebral Column and Spinal Cord

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how many bones in the coccyx
4 bones
Spondylolysis
a defect allowing part of a verte bral arch to be separate from its body
Spine Bifida
Failure of fusion of the halves of the arch; usually occurs in L5 and/ or s1
Kyphosis
exaggerated thoracic curvature--humpback or hunchback
Ligamentum Flaum
connect laminae of adjacent vertebra
anterior longitudinal
Bind up the anterior surface of the vertebral bodies, runs up and down
supraspinous ligament
attaches all of the tips of the spinous processes together
Interspinous ligament
attaches to the sides of the the spinous processes and runs up and down connecting them all
posterior longitudinal ligament
binds posterior surfaces of bodies and discs
anteriorly concave
known as primary curves because you are born with these, thoracic, sacral, and coccygeal
anteriorly convex
known as secondary b/c they develop later on, cervical and lumbar portions
2 joints of the vertebral column
amphiarthrosis/cartilaginous--(symphsis)

Diarthrosis(synovial)--which involve the articular processes of the vertebrae, and the costal joints
2 parts of the intervertebral disc
anulus fibrosus--the outer part

nucleus pulposus which is the inner softer gelatinous portion that shrinks and is a remnant of the notochord

Remember the ligaments that are a part of this joint are the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
3 synovial joints in the vertebral column
costotransverse
costovertebral
zygapophyseal--ligaments-->supraspinous, interspinous, ligamentum flavum and intertransverse
Termination of the spinal cord
the end is known as the CONUS MEDULLARIS, usually ends between L1 and L2 but can be T12 to L3.
2 enlarments of the spinal cord
Cervical Enlargement(C4-T1)
Lumbar enlargement (L1 to S4) which is after the conus meduallaris

both happen in order to innervate the extremities (upper and lower)
Cauda Equina
Collection of dorsal and ventral roots of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves, they start below the conus medullaris and exit their respective intervertebral foramina
What is the subarachnoid space called from L2-S2
the lumbar cistern.