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ACE Group Fitness Chapter 6
Terms in this set (102)
Participant-centered teaching approach
1. involves designing a class based on the specific needs of the participants
2. many group fitness classes are composed of participants with varying levels of fitness, skills, and abilities
3. ideally, instructors should obtain health history from each participant to develop modifications to exercise if necessary.
4. when health history is not available, instructors should ask new participants if they have any health limitations
5. the approach requires the instructor to become interactive with the participants during the class (e.g., observing and giving feedback to participants from different areas in the room)
6. this takes the focus off the instructor's workout and places it on the safety and effectiveness of the participants' performance
characteristics for the participant-centered instructor
1. promotes participant independence
2. provides consistent encouragement
3. has knowledge of attainable goals
4. is centered on reality
characters for instructor-centered teacher
1. promotes participation dependence
2. influences participants through intimidation
3. presents unattainable goals
4. focuses on quick fixes
a relative measure of height to body weight for determining the degree of obesity.
should not be used solely to determine body comp for an athlete or muscular person because it doesn't distinguish between fat mass and fat-free mass.
how to calculate bmi
weight (kg)/height (m²)
( kg/m² ) weight in kilograms
height in meters²
How to convert feet to meters
multiply # of inches by .0254
how to convert lbs to kg
divide by 2.2
Underweight = <18.5
Normal weight = 18.5-24.9
Overweight = 25-29.9
Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater
Grade 1 Obesity = 30.0 - 34.9
Grade 2 Obesity = 35.0 - 39.9
Grade 3 Obesity = >40
Fitness assessment circumference measurements
1. circumference measurements can be used to assess body comp as well as body-fat distribution
2. measurements are taken with a cloth measuring tape and must be taken at specific anatomical sites for accuracy
3. more practical than other methods of body-comp assessment for obese participants
Submaximal aerobic fitness test
1. a c/r fitness test designed so that the intensity does not exceed 85% HRR
2. provides an estimation of the VO2 Max w/o the risks associated with maximal exercise testing
- YMCA sub maximal step test
- McArdle step test
- Rockport fitness walking test (1-mile walk)
- BYU jog test
Fitness assessment: muscular endurance-- measures a muscle or muscle group's ability to exert a sub maximal force either repeatedly or statically over time
half-sit up test (lisa doesn't like these)
Fitness test: flexibility-- measures ROM at specific joints
trunk flexion (sit and reach)
shoulder flexibility (if shoulder issues, should not do this one)
Reassessment: measurable change usually takes 4-6 weeks
first follow-up assessment should be administered 4-12 weeks after the onset of training. this info is useful in participant motivation as well as in future exercise programming
should reflect applied exercise science principles and appropriate exercise techniques
Class Components (intensity and duration of each class component varies depending on the general skills and abilities of the class participants)
warmup: 5-10 min
conditioning: 20-45 min
cool-down: 5-10 min
stretching: 7-10 min
purpose of the warm-up
prepares class participants for more rigorous activity by raising internal body temperature
potential physiological benefits
Increased metabolic rate
Increased blood flow to active muscles
Increased rate of oxygen exchange between blood and muscles
Increased rate of nerve transmission
Decreased muscle relaxation time following
Increased speed and force of muscular contraction
Increased muscle elasticity
Increased flexibility of tendons and ligaments
Reduced risk of abnormal heart rhythms
Decreased risk of injury
Warm-up exercise selection: Specificity
Warm-up movements should mimic movements that will be used later in the conditioning portion of class.
This allows the involved motor units to "rehearse" movement patterns slower or at a lighter intensity prior to training.
Warm-up exercise selection: Elevating core body temperature
Begin with small, isolated movements and progress
Exaggerated movements using many muscle groups will aid in increasing internal body temperature.
Warm-up exercise selection: Dynamic Flexibility
Research on the benefits of stretching prior to
Stretching in the group fitness class warm-up should be dynamic in nature.
Range-of-motion exercises should focus on important postural muscle groups (i.e., anterior shoulder, hip flexors, low-back, hamstrings, calves) and those that will be used later in class.
Cardio respiratory training
Group indoor cycling
Muscular strength and endurance conditioning
Group strength training
Stability ball training
Medicine ball training
Three phases of the conditioning component
Prepares the cardiovascular, cardiorespiratory, and
musculoskeletal systems for more intense activity
Emphasizes continuous, large-muscle movements that further increase body temperature and heart rate
Intensity and heart rate build gradually.
This is the target training zone for class participants.
Allows the body to gradually re-establish equilibrium at a lower intensity
Intensity and heart rate should reach the lower end of the target range.
Cool-down: Cardiac complications are more likely to occur with the cessation of exercise. Therefore, an appropriate cool-down may:
Prevent excess pooling of the blood in the lower extremities for at-risk individuals
Promote faster removal of metabolic wastes
Stretching: Primary goal
enhance flexibility (range of motion)
Stretching "warm" muscles
reduces tissue damage and increases the potential for the muscle elongation to remain after the stretch is removed.
of low force and long duration is recommended.
Stretches should emphasize
commonly tight postural muscles (i.e., anterior shoulder, hip flexors, low-back, hamstrings, calves) and the major muscle groups used during class.
Stretching in combination with slow, deep breathing
may also offer stress reduction and relaxation benefits.
Equipment should be assembled and stored per the manufacturer's instructions.
A schedule of regular service and repair should be established.
Group fitness instructors should instruct class participants on equipment safety and proper use.
Participants and instructors should check equipment prior to use.
Functional Applications and Group Exercise
Functional training places the neuromuscular and skeletal systems under a variety of physical demands with an emphasis on multiplanar, integrated movements.
Functional Applications Goals
Activities of daily living
Exercise and/or sport performance
Interdependent physical demands managed by the neuromuscular system
Functional training: Acceleration
requires force production
Functional training: deceleration
requires force reduction
Functional Training: Dynamic stabilization
occurs in all three planes of motion
Functional demands can be seen in a task as simple as standing up and sitting down
Standing up requires the quadriceps, gluteals, and hamstrings to concentrically contract to produce enough force to overcome gravity to pull the body up from the chair (accelerate).
Sitting down requires the quadriceps, gluteals, and hamstrings to eccentrically contract to resist gravity and lower the body down in the chair (decelerate).
Throughout the actions of standing up and sitting down, the hip abductors and adductors work to stabilize the pelvis so the movement is performed efficiently and in the appropriate plane of motion (dynamic stabilization).
Exercises that promote function
Squats and lunges
Progression of Functional movement exercises
Begin with the least challenging movements and progress to more advanced exercises.
Move from most stable to least stable positions.
Always provide modification options for balance-challenged participants.
Health-related fitness components
include body composition
Improvements in body composition are best accomplished through
Regular aerobic exercise
Consistent resistance training Proper nutrition
Group fitness and body comp
It may be an important part of one's total body-composition management program
Skill-related fitness components
—ability to react and move quickly
—ability to move a load through
space quickly and explosively
—ability to change position and direction rapidly without losing balance
—ability to maintain equilibrium while stationary or while moving
—ability to move efficiently and smoothly while executing a task
Not all group fitness class participants need or want to enhance skill-related fitness.
Understanding the appropriateness of skill-enhancing activities within specific class formats is important.
Established human performance principles (A group fitness instructor must take into account these principles when designing and implementing each class.)
—a specific demand on the body will produce a specific result
—beneficial adaptations occur in response to demands applied to the body at levels beyond a certain threshold, but within the limits of tolerance and safety
—the body will lose its adaptations if the demand is not constant
Group fitness classes often consist of participants with varying levels of fitness and skill.
Instructors must be aware of specific modifications for varying the intensity to accommodate all class participants.
The size of arm and leg movements
Instructors should demonstrate different levels
of intensity each time a new move is introduced.
Instructors should spend most of their time performing the less-intense versions of the exercises in a class with varying participant skill levels.
In a class with multiple participant skill levels, bpm
The more advanced participants can use larger arm and leg movements to increase intensity.
The size of arm and leg movements
Longer lever-based movements increase intensity.
should accommodate the least fit.
Shorter lever-based movements decrease intensity.
Instructors must be able to demonstrate varying levels of intensity using a variety of exercise equipment.
Instructors should be familiar with basic non-equipment exercises that replace those that are performed with equipment.
Knowledge of common group fitness exercise equipment is important, such as:
Exercise progression: Progression in every class
Rarely does an instructor introduce a new class and continue to have the same participants time after time.
Intensity needs vary from one participant to another.
Gradually building complicated movements in a step-by-step manner in each class will ensure that participants of varying levels of skill and fitness will be successful.
Exercise progression: Progression over time
For situations when an instructor starts with a beginner-level class and progresses the participants to a more advanced level, knowledge of appropriate progression principles is important.
Cardiorespiratory exercise progression guidelines
Duration is increased by no more than 20% weekly until participants are able to exercise at a moderate to vigorous intensity continuously for 20 to 30 minutes.
Initially, increases in duration and/or frequency are tolerated better than increases in intensity.
Once the target duration and frequency are achieved, adjustments in intensity of no more than 5% of HRR every 6th exercise session are recommended.
Resistance exercise progression guidelines
When participants no longer feel challenged by their current resistance-training stimulus, they should be encouraged to increase intensity.
Maintaining muscular tension, as opposed to "locking out" the joint during compound exercises, promotes safer and more effective exercise.
An increase in intensity for resistance training can be brought about by varying any one of the following variables, while keeping all other variables constant:
The weight (resistance)
The number of repetitions
Reducing speed of movement
Reducing rest periods between sets or between exercises
Monitoring aerobic exercise intensity: percentage of maximum heart rate (MHR)
To determine an exerciser's target heart rate (THR), use a percentage of MHR.
MHR may be determined by a VO2max test or estimated by the age-predicted maximal heart rate formula.
Monitoring aerobic exercise intensity: heart rate reserve (HRR)
HRR is the result of subtracting RHR from MHR.
HRR represents the working range between resting and maximum HR within which all physical activity occurs.
The Karvonen formula is an equation that uses HRR to determine THR.
Karvonen formula: common mistake
forgetting to add back in the RHR.
Monitoring aerobic exercise intensity: rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
Developed by Dr. Borg, the RPE scale provides a standard means for subjective self-evaluation of exercise intensity level.
Original scale: 6 to 20
Revised category ratio scale: 0 to 10
Monitoring aerobic exercise intensity: talk test
The talk test is based on the concept that exercise participants should be able to breathe comfortably and rhythmically, avoiding hyperventilation.
If breathing is labored and difficult, intensity is too great.
Especially useful for beginners
Higher-functioning exercisers may find this subjective technique too conservative.
Monitoring aerobic exercise intensity: dyspnea scale
Dyspnea refers to difficulty breathing or shortness of breath.
Subjective numerical scale
Well-suited for use by participants who have pulmonary conditions, such as asthma and emphysema, and for those who feel limited due to breathlessness
+1 mild, noticeable to participant, but not to observer
+2 mild, some difficulty, participant can continue to exercise
+3 moderate difficulty, participant can continue to exercise
+4 severe difficulty, participant must stop exercising
Assessing heart rate
carotid pulse site
radial pulse site
temporal pulse site
carotid pulse site
The carotid artery is just to the side of the larynx.
Use light pressure from the fingertips.
Never press on both carotid arteries at the same time, as doing so will blunt the heart-rate response.
radial pulse site
The radial artery is in the wrist, in line with the
Use light pressure from the fingertips.
temporal pulse site
Use light pressure from the fingertips.
why should you not use your thumb to assess your heart rate?
the thumb has its own strong pulse.
Monitoring intensity in the group exercise setting
If using music and measuring heart rate, turn off the music so the beats do not interfere with pulse counting.
A peripheral pulse (e.g., radial) is encouraged over the use of the carotid pulse; if using the carotid pulse, press lightly.
Check intensity during the middle of the conditioning segment so it can be modified if necessary.
When checking a pulse, keep participants moving to prevent pooling of the blood in the lower extremities.
Use a 10-second pulse count if using target heart rates.
Give modifications based on results, and encourage participants to work at their own pace.
Conditions that may affect resting and exercise heart rate
RHR & THR & Medications
Participants who take substances that may affect heart rate (e.g., beta blockers, cold medications with sympathomimetic activity, nicotine, caffeine) should use RPE as the method for monitoring exercise intensity.
RHR & THR & Pregnancy
The heart works at a higher capacity to pump more blood volume throughout the body.
The oxygen cost of weightbearing activity is greater due to increased body weight.
RPE should be used as the method for monitoring exercise intensity.
RHR & THR & Disease
In general, disease conditions require the body to spend more time adapting to the demands of exercise.
Warm-ups and cool-downs should be extended.
The intensity of exercise should be reduced.
RPE in conjunction with heart-rate monitoring is recommended for monitoring exercise intensity for many types of disease.
Very light to fairly light intensity exercise (i.e., 9-11 on the 6-20 scale, or 1-2 on the 0-10 scale) is recommended for the initial stage with participants who fall in the special populations category.
Appropriate heart-rate responses: Warm-up
The warm-up includes specific movements to prepare the body for the upcoming conditioning activities.
Heart rate gradually increases to the low end of a participant's target zone (e.g., 40-50% HRR).
Appropriate heart-rate responses: Cardiorespiratory segment
Goals are to increase cardiorespiratory endurance and improve body composition.
The participant's heart rate remains elevated for 10 to 30 minutes in his or her target zone (e.g., 50-85% HRR).
Appropriate heart-rate responses: Post-conditioning cool-down
Prevents excessive pooling of the blood in
the lower extremities
Heart rate decreases toward resting levels.
Appropriate heart-rate responses: muscular strength & endurance segment
Heart rate may increase, but not to the same extent as in the cardiorespiratory conditioning segment.
Appropriate heart-rate responses: stretching segment
Designed to further lower heart rate
Promotes relaxation and enhanced overall flexibility
Music selection: music beats
- regular pulsations that are an even rhythm and occur in a continuous pattern
- downbeat: strong pulsations
- upbeat: weak pulsations
- tempo: speed of music expressed as beats per minute (bpm)
general guidelines for selecting music tempo
1. less than 100 bpm: post cool-down, stretching
2. 120-160 bpm: warm-up, pre-stretch, aerobic conditioning, and cool-down
3. 110-130 bpm: floor and resistance-training exercises
Cardiorespiratory training: Traditional aerobics-- high impact
Cardiorespiratory training: Traditional aerobics-- low impact
Cardiorespiratory training: Step aerobics
Cardiorespiratory training: kickboxing fitness
Cardiorespiratory training: group indoor cycling
Cardiorespiratory training: Aquatic exercise
Muscular Strength and Endurance conditioning: 110-130 bpm
group strength training
stability ball training
medicine ball training
Mind-body exercise BPM: various
Instructors should be familiar with the basic features of the sound system they will be using
Audiologists recommend instructors keep music volume under 85 decibels
1. extended exposure to sound levels of 85-90 db may eventually damage hearing
2. higher frequency sounds are more damaging. therefore, instructors should increase the bass and lower the treble
voice injury is likely if instructors yell over loud music
a microphone is recommended
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