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72 terms

Chapter 6

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following statements regarding muscle fibers is false?
Training usually converts one type of muscle fiber into another.
The term anaerobic means
without O2
Which of the following statements regarding fast-twitch muscles is false?
Fast-twitch muscles produce more ATP per glucose than slow-twitch muscles.
Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?
Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria.
How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration?
They produce ATP
The procedures of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions some energy is?
Lost in the form of heat
Respiration_________and cellular respiration_______
is gas exchange.....produces ATP
Which of the following are products of cellular respiration?
energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide
which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false?
Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step.
The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is
C6H12O6+6O2--->6CO2+6H2O+energy
which of the following statements about the energy yields from cellular respiration is true?
Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy for gasoline
Humans use the calories they obtain from_____as their source of energy.
food
Humans use about ____of their daily calories for involuntary life sustaining activities such as digestion, circulation and breathing.
75%
A Kilocalorie is defined as
the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1C
The label on the box of breakfast cereal lists one serving as containing 200 calories per serving. How many calories are actually in one serving?
200,000
During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose
is carried by electrons
During redox reactions
electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance.
Oxidation is the ___and reduction is the ___
loss of electrons....gain of electrons
In biological systems an important enzyme involved in the regulation of redox reactions is
dehydrogenase
During cellular respiration NADH
delivers its electron load to the electron carrier molecule
During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. which of the following statements about this process is true?
Molecular oxygen is reduced when it accepts electrons and forms water.
The functioning of an electron chain is analogous to
Slinky toy going down a flight of stairs.
Which of the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order?
glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
A drug is tested in the laboratory and is found to create holes in both mitochondrial membranes. Scientists suspect that the drug will be harmful to human cells because it will inhibit
the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
During which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place?
glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
which of the following metabolic is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism?
glycolysis
As a result of glycolysis ther is a net gain of ____ATPs
2
How many molecules of NADH are produced during glycolysis
2
Which of the following is a result of glycolysis?
conversion of glucose to two three-carbon compounds
A culture of bacteria growing aerobically is fed glucose containing radioactive carbon and is then examined. As the bacteria metabolize the glucose, radioactively will appear first in
glucose-6-phosphate
The end products of glycolysis include
NADH
Pyruvate
forms at the end of glycolysis
Between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
pyruvate is oxidized while a molecule of NAD+ is reduced to NADH
Which of the following statements regarding the chemical grooming of pyruvate is false?
Each pyruvate molecule has a CO2 added and then joins with an NADH
Pvruvate is considered a(n)
intermediate in
The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in the
matrix and inner mitochondrial
The end products of the citric and cycle include all of the following except
pyruvate
The function of coenzyme A in the citric acid cycle is most like
a limousine driver dropping off a couple at the school prom
A culture of bacteria growing aerobically is fed glucose containing radioactive carbon and is then examined. During the citric acid cycle, radioactivity would first appear in
Citrate
At the end of the citric acid cycle most of the energy remaining from the original glucose is stored in
NADH
During chemiosmosis
ATP is synthesized when H+ ions move through a protein port provided by ATP synthase.
Which of the following statements about the inner mitochondrial membrane is false?
The inner mitochondrial membrane plays a role in the production of pyruvate
The mitochondrial cristae are an adaptation that
increases the space for more copies of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase complexes.
A Mutant protist is found in which some mitochondria lack an inner mitochondrial membrane. Which of the following pathways would be completely disrupted in these mitochondria?
oxidative phosphorylation
If you were able to stop the process of cellular respiration after completing election transport but prior to chemiosmosis, you would find the ph of a mitochondrion to be at its lowest
in the inter membrane space
By products of cellular respiration include
carbon dioxide and water
In the election transport chain, the election acceptor is
An oxygen atom
Rotenone is a poison community added to insecticides. Insects exposed to rotenone will die because
they will no longer be able to produce adequate amounts of ATP
Cyanide differs from dinitrophenol in that
cyanide is an electron transport blocker, while dinitrophenol is a reaction uncoupier.
Which of the following statements about the energy yield of aerobic respiration is false?
Glycolysis and the "grooming" of pyruvate together produce more NADH per glucose molecule than does the citric acid cycle
each FADH2 yields a maximum of ____ATP, and each NADH yields a maximum of _____ATP as a result of transferring pairs of electrons to the electron transport chain.
2.......3
Glycolysis and the citric acid must occur____time(s) per glucose molecule
2
The energy yield from the complete aerobic breakdown of a single molecule of glucose
can vary with the mechanism used to shuttle NADH electrons into the mitochondrion
which of the following processes produce the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized?
aerobic respiration
in fermentation____is____
NADH......oxidized
when n organism such as a yeast lives by termentation, it converts the pyruvate from giycoiysis into a different compound, such as alcohol. why doesn't it secrete the pyruvate directly?
the conversion is needed to regenerate the NAD+ consumed during glycolysis
muscle soreness associated with strenuous exercise is at least partly due to
the presence of lactate produced during fermentation in muscle cells
a child is born with a rare disease in which mitochondria are missing from skeletal muscle cells.However,the muscles still function. Physicians find that
the muscle contains large amounts of lactate following even mild physical exercise
Some friends are trying to make wine in their basement. They've added yeast to a sweet.grape juice mixture and has allowed yeast to grow. After several days they find that sugar a levels in the grape juice have dropped, but there's no alcohol in the mixture. The most likely explanation is that
the mixture needs more sugar, because yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen.
in yeast cells,
alcohol is produced after glycoysis
Bacteria are unable to survive in the presence of oxygen are called
obligate anaerobes
Yeast can produce ATP by either fermentation or oxidattive phosphorylation; they are
facultative anaerobes
when did the level of oxygen in the earth's atmosphere become high enough to sustain aerobic respiration?
2.7 billion years ago
which of the following statements regarding glycolysis is false?
Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is the most efficient metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis
To obtain energy from starch and glycogen, the body must begin by
hydrolyzing both starch and glycogen glucose
When proteins are used as a source energy for they body, the proteins
are converted mainly in to intermediates of glycolysis or the acid cycle
When cell uses fatty acid for aerobic respiration, it first hydrolyzes fats to
glycerol and fatty acids
If you consume 1g of each of the following, which will yield the most ATP?
Fat
which of the following statements regarding food is false?
food provides the raw materials for biosyntetic pathways that consume ATP
which of the following organisms can make organic molecules from water and carbon dioxide?
wheat
The conversion of CO2 and H2O into organic compounds using energy from light is called
photosynthesis
The glycolytic pathway will_____after a large meal and_____during a long period of exercise
slow down.......speed up