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B. mod Ch 9-12
Terms in this set (47)
What is a stimulus? Give two examples that aren't form the text.
Stimulus is the people, objects and events currently present in one's surroundings that impinge on one's sense receptors and can affect behaviour.
Example: The smell of cookies, the sound of a car horn.
What is an ABC assessment?
Identifying the antecedents (stimuli that exists just prior to the behavior occurrence), behavior, and consequences
Define stimulus control
The degree of correlation between the occurrence of a particular antecedent stimulus and the occurrence of a subsequent response. When the stimulus occurs, the response is likely to follow.
State the two effects of stimulus discrimination training.
a) Good stimulus control: A strong correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and a particular response
b) Stimulus discrimination: A response occurs to an S^D(stimulus in which the response will pay off), not to a S^triangle(stimulus in the presence of which a response will not be reinforced)
Define stimulus generalization and give an example not in this chapter
The procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus or situation and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the presence of another stimulus or situation. The person responds in the same way to two different stimuli, thus stimulus generalization is the opposite of stimulus discrimination.
Example: Little Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat, and this fear generalized to other stimuli such as a white puppy.
What do we mean by common-element stimulus class? By conceptual behavior? Give an example of each that aren't in this chapter
A set of stimuli all of which have one or more physical characteristic in common.
Example: Birds-All birds have wings, beaks and feathers.
Conceptual behavior is when an individual emits an appropriate response to all members of a common-element class and does not emit that reponse to stimuli that do not belong in that class. Example: A child calls a blue jay a bird, but does not call a plane a bird.
What is a primary distinction between stimulus generalization involving common-element stimulus classes and stimulus generalization involving stimulus equivalence classes?
Common element stimulus classes have physical similarities between stimuli within the class, stimulus equivalence classes have completely dissimilar stimuli.
In general, what is a contingency? Give an example not in this chapter.
If you perform a response, then you will receive reinforcement.
If you do three math problems then you will get a cookie.
From a behavioural perspective, what is a rule?
A situation in which a beahviour will lead to a consequence.
With examples that aren't in this chapter, distinguish between rule-governed and contingency-shaped beahviour
Rule governed behavior example: A mother telling a child, if you make your bed every morning, you will get a cookie.
Contingency-shaped behavior example: When Jane climbs to the top of a tree when her friend is present, her friend cheers for her.
Give an example of how ignorance of stimulus discrimination training may lead parents or caregivers to develop an undesirable beahviour in a child or adult in their care?
Terri is playing with a remote control causing annoying channel changes, the mother tells her to stop and she doesn't, then she tells her to stop more loudly, and she doesn't, finally the mother screams at Terri, and she puts down the remote. When she puts down the remoter her mother says nicely "That's better, mommy likes it when you do what I tell you, why didn't you do that in the first place?" The discimrination Terri is learning is that waiting until mother is really angry before responding to her requests.
Define fading and give an example of it
The gradual change over successive trails of an antecedent stimulus that controls a response so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or completely new antecedent stimulus.
Example: A ballet teacher may guide students through a routine with hand motions, and as they learn the dance better do less hand motions.
Define errorless discrimination training
The use of a fading procedure to establish a stimulus discrimination so no errors occur.
What is meant by a dimension of a stimulus? Give an example
Any characteristic that can be measured on some continuum.
Example: The loudness of a question
What do we mean by final target stimulus? Give an example
The stimulus which is selected as the final antecedent for the behavior.
Example: The target prompt for Peter to say his name was being asked "What's your name"
What do we mean by starting stimulus? Give an example
An antecedent which reliably evokes the desired behavior.
Example: Saying "touch your nose" to a child, and then taking the child's hand and guiding it to their nose.
Define the four major categories of teacher-behaviour prompts. Give an example of each
a) Physical Prompts: Guiding a behavior through touch eg. Parents holding a child's hands when teaching them to walk
b) Gestural Prompts: Motions a teacher makes Eg. Pointing to a tissue box to get a child to blow their nose.
c) Modling prompts: When the correct behavior is demonstrates Eg. A gymnastic teacher shows a child how to do a summer sault by doing it herself.
d) Verbal prompts: Verbal hints or cues Eg. A driving instructor tells a student to shoulder check when changing lanes.
Define within-stimulus prompt and give an example not from this chapter. Does your example involve a teacher-behaviour prompt? Or an environmental prompt?
A variation of the S^D or S^triangle to make their characteristics more noticeable and therefore easier to discriminate. A mother wants her child to remember to use toothpaste when brushing their teeth, so they paint to toothpaste bottle bright yellow. This is environmental prompt.
Define extra-stimulus prompt and give an example not from this chapter. Does your example involve a teacher-behaviour prompt or an environmental prompt
Something added to the environment to make a correct response more likely
Example: A parent wants their child to sort baseball cards and basketball cards into two different piles. The parent points to which pile the card goes in when the child picks up a card. This is a teacher-behaviour prompt.
Distinguish between a behavior sequence that is a chain and one that isn't a chain
A behavior sequence that is a chain is a consistent series of stimuli and responses that occur closely in time and for which each stimulus is an S^D for the next response. A non-chain sequence has a variety of activities, with many breaks in the action, and isn't made up of a consistent series of stimuli and responses occur closely in times for which each stimulus is an S^D for the next response.
Briefly describe the total-task presentation chaining method
An individual attempts all of the seps, beginning to end of the cahin on each trial and continues with total task trials until they learn the chain. Prompting is provided at each step as needed, and reinforcer is given after correct completion of the last step.
Breifly describe the backward chaining method
The last step is taugh first , then the second last is taught and linked to the last, then the third which is linked to the last two steps and this continues until the chain is constructed in reverse order. Reinforcerment is given at each step.
Briefly describe the forward-chaining method
Teaches the initial step of the sequence first then teaches and links together the first and second steps, then the first three etc. Until the entire chain is acquired.
Describe how each of the three major chaining methods could be used to teach bed making
3 Parts of making a bed: put blanket on bed; straighten the blankets out; put on the pillows.
S1 (seeing the unmade bed)→R1 putting the blanket on it; S2→R2 (straighten the blanket)→S3→R3 put on the pillows→S+
Put on the pillows, get rewarded, then straighten the blankets and the pillows get rewarded, then put on the blanket, straighten it, and put on the pillows and get rewarded
Put on the blanket, get rewarded, put on the blanket and straighten it and get rewarded, put on the blanket, straighten it then put on the pillows and get rewarded
Distinguish among the types of target behavior typically established by shaping, fading and chaining
Shaping: New beahviour along some physical dimension eg. Toptography, amount, intensity
Fading: New stimulus control of a particular beahviour
Chaining: New consistent sequence of stimuli and responses
What's meant by the term task analysis? Describe a plausible task analysis appropriate for teaching a three year old child the chain of tying a knot in their shoes
The process of breaking down a task into smaller steps to facilitate training.
a) Hold both laces in your hand
b) Cross the laces
c) Slip one lace under the other
d) Pull the laces
Briefly describe three strategies to help individuals use prompts independently to guide the mastery of a chain of behaviours.
a) Written task analysis: Read prompts for each steps
b) Picture prompts: Look at pictures to guide them
c) Self-instructions: Recite self-instructions to prompt steps.
Define limited-responding DRL, and give an example.
Limited-responding DRL specifies a maximum allowable number of responses during a certain time interval in order for a reinforcer to occur. Example: With Tommy, an interval (50 minutes) was specified and reinforcement occurred at the end of the interval if it contained fewer than a specified number of responses (three talk outs).
Define spaced-responding DRL, and give an example.
Spaced-responding DRL requires that a specified behaviour not occur during a specified interval, and after the interval has passed, an instance of that behaviour must then occur in order for a reinforcer to occur. Example: A student who always calls out the correct answer deprives classmates of the chance to respond to the teacher's questions. Naturally, we would not wish to eliminate this child's correct answering. We would hope, however, to reduce the calling out behaviour. We might do this by placing the behaviour on the following DRL schedule: any target response that occurs after 15 minutes of the previous target response is immediately reinforced; any target response that occurs within 15 minutes of the previous target response is not reinforced.
Describe in some detail of how DRL would be useful in treating a behaviour problem. Indicate type of DRL. (Example)
A student who always calls out the correct answer deprives classmates of the chance to respond to the teacher's questions. Naturally, we would not wish to eliminate this child's correct answering. We would hope, however, to reduce the calling out behaviour. We might do this by placing the behaviour on the following DRL schedule: any target response that occurs after 15 minutes of the previous target response is immediately reinforced; any target response that occurs within 15 minutes of the previous target response is not reinforced. SPACED-RESPONDING DRL
Describe in some detail of how DRO would be useful in treating a behaviour problem.
A student picks his nose a lot in class instead of doing his work. The teacher implemented a schedule in which the student must go 2 minutes without picking his nose and if he does then the interval starts all over again. If he completes it then he gets an extra minute of free-time. The interval increases from 2 minutes to 5 minutes to 8 minutes and so on until he no longer picks his nose.
What is the difference between DRI and DRA?
Differential reinforcement of incompatible (DRI) behaviour decreases a target response by withholding reinforcers for it and by reinforcing an incompatible response whereas differential reinforcement of alternative (DRA) behaviour involves the extinction of a problem behaviour combined with reinforcing a behaviour that is topographically dissimilar to but not necessarily incompatible with the problem behaviour.
Describe a pitfall of DRL for people who are ignorant of its effects.
Tendency to unknowingly reinforce a desirable behaviour on a DRL, thereby causing that desirable behaviour to occur at a low rate rather than reinforcing the behaviour on a schedule that would maintain that behaviour at a high rate.
What happens if the frequency of reinforcement on DRL, DRO, DRI, or DRA is too low or is decreased too rapidly?
It can decrease the rate that a desirable behaviour occurs so it occurs only sometimes.
What is a punisher? Give an example that you experienced and identify both the response and the punisher.
An immediate consequence of an operant behaviour that causes that behaviour to decrease in frequency.
Example: When I told my mom to shut up (response), she took my phone away from me (punisher).
State the principle of punishment
If, in a given situation, someone does something that is immediately followed by a punisher, then that person is less likely to do the same thing again when he or she next encounters a similar situation.
How does the meaning of the word punishment for behaviour modifiers differ from the meaning of that word for most people?
a) It occurs immediately after the problem behaviour
b) It isn't a form of moral sanction, vengeance or retribution
c) It isn't used to deter others from engaging in the target behaviour
Define unconditioned punisher, and give an example that illustrates the complete definition
Stimuli that are punishing without prior learning.
Example: The pain you feel after touching a hot stove is an unconditioned punisher
Describe or define four different types of punishers and give an example of each
a) Pain-inducing (physical) punisher: Stimuli that activate pain receptors. As well as unpleasant smells and tastes.
Example: Bobby calls his mother a loser, so she spanks him.
b) Reprimand: A strong negative verbal stimulus immediately contingent on behaviour, also includes a fixed stare or firm grasp.
Example: John spills his milk, and his father yells at him "You're a bad boy".
c) Timeout: A period of time immediately following a particular behaviour during which an individual loses the opportunity to earn reinforcers. Can be exclusionary or non-exclusionary
Example: When a teacher saw John hit another child during recess, immediately made him go inside and sit in the principals office for 5 minutes.
d) Response cost: The removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer immediately following a beahviour. May have a direct-acting or indirect-acting effect.
Distinguish between an exclusionary and nonexclusionary timeout
Exclusionary timeout: removing an individual briefly from a reinforcing situation immediately following a behaviour.
Nonexclusionary timeout: Introducing into the situation, immediately after the behaviour, a stimulus associated with less reinforcement.
State the procedures for extinction, response cost and exclusionary timeout
Extinction: In this procedure, a reinforcer is withheld following a previously reinforced response
Response cost: The removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer immediately following a beahviour.
Exclusionary time out: Removing an individual briefly from a reinforcing siutaiton immediately following a behaviour.
Distingusih between the direct-acting and indirect-acting effects of punishment. Give an example of each
Direct-acting effect: The decreased frequency of a response because of immediate punishing consequences. Example: Immediatley after John hits his brother, his mother takes away 2 of the stickers he earned earlier that day.
Indirect-acting effect: Punishment is the weakening of a response followed by a punisher even though the punisher is delayed. Example: A man speeds through an intersection, and is caught by photo radar. A week later he is given a ticket through the mail.
Compare S^D to S^Dsubp, give an example of each from your own experience.
S^D is a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced. Example: The sound of icecream truck music is an S^D for me to go outside and buy and icecream.
A S^Dsubp is a stimulus in which the presence of a response will be punished. Exmaple: If my mom tells me to "play my music quiety" (S^Dsubp), if I play it at full volume (behaviour), my mother will reprimand me (punisher)
Compare S^triangle to S^Dsubp. Give an example of each from your own experience
An S^triangle is a stimulus that a behaviour will not receive reinforcement Example: If I want to ride a roller coaster, but a sign says "Roller coaster is not working" (S^triangle), the sign is a stimulus, telling me that this beahviour will not be reinforced. A S^Dsubp is a stimulus that a behaviour will receive a punisher. Example: A sign says "Do not sit on the roller coaster, those who enter will be kicked out of the park" (S^Dsubp), if I sit on the roller coaster (behaviour) they will be kicked out of the park (punisher)
In two or three sentences, describe either the case of the lemon juice therapy with Sandra or the ice cube therapy with Gerri
Gerri had a bruxism(exessive grinding of teeth) problem, to decrease her bruxism mild physical therapeutic punishment was used. Whenever behavior modifiers could hear her grinding her teeth, they put an icecube on her face for a few seconds. Within a few days her teeth grinding decreased considerably, and after 2 months had almost completely ceased.
Cite six potential harmful side effects of the application of punishment.
a) Aggressive behaviour
b) Emotional behaviour
c) Escape and Avoidance behaviour
d) No new behaviour
e) Modeling of the punishment
f) Overuse of the punishment
Give an example of functional communication training
Children who emitted self-injurious behaviour were taught a simple communicative response eg. Ringing a bell or a verbal response, as an alternative to self-abuse to obtain attention. This eliminated the self-injurious behaviour.
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