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Hormonal Responses to Exercise
Terms in this set (89)
Endocrinology is the study of ______ and the functions of _______.
During endocrinology, hormones are secreted directly into the ______ _____ by endocrine glands.
Neuroendocrinology is the endocrine system that works with the _______ ______.
During Neuroendocrinology, the nervous system effects happen _____ but are in _____ duration.
During Neuroendocrinology, the Endocrine system effects happen _____ but are in _____ duration.
The effect of a hormone on a tissue is determined by the _______ concentration.
The effect of a hormone on a tissue is determined by which 4 things?
1. Rate of secretion of hormone from endocrine gland.
2. Rate of metabolism or excretion of hormone.
3. Quantity of transport protein.
4. Changes in Plasma Volume.
Where does the excretion of a hormone take place?
At the receptor by the liver and kidneys.
Hormones only affect tissue with specific _________.
The magnitude of the effect of a tissue depends on what 3 factors?
1. Concentration of hormone.
2. Number of receptors on the cell.
3. Affinity of the receptor for the hormone.
The decrease in receptor number in response to chronic exposure to a high concentration of a hormone
The increase in receptor number in response to chronic exposure to a low concentration of a hormone
What are the 3 mechanisms of hormone actions?
1. Altering Membrane Transport.
2. Direct Membrane Transport.
3. Activating Second Messengers.
What is an example of an altering membrane transport?
Insulin Receptor (Tyrosine and Kinase)
What is an example of direct membrane transport?
What are 4 examples of Activating Second Messengers?
1. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (Cyclic AMP)
3. Inositol Triphosphate (IP3)
4. Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1)
Name the 6 Endocrine Glands.
1. Hypothalamus and Pituitary Glands
2. Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
3. Adrenal Glands
6. Testes and Ovaries
Name the 2 hormones in the posterior pituitary glands.
2. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) or Vasopressin
The hormone in the posterior pituitary gland that facilitates child birth and stimulates milk ejection.
The hormone in the posterior pituitary gland that decreases water loss by kidney; increase peripheral resistance in circulatory system.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) or Vasopressin
What are the 7 hormones located in the Anterior Pituitary Gland?
1. Growth Hormone
4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
5. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
6. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
7. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
The hormone in the anterior pituitary gland that simulates growth and blood glucose maintenance?
Growth Hormone (GH)
The hormone in the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates lactation and have over 300 documented functions.
The hormone in the anterior pituitary gland that blocks pain by acting on opiate receptors in the brain.
The hormone in the anterior pituitary gland that deal with thyroid hormone secretion?
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
The hormone in the anterior pituitary gland that deals with the secretion of cortisol?
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
The hormone in the anterior pituitary gland that deals with testosterone secretion and sperm development in MEN and progesterone secretion and ovum development in WOMEN.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
The hormone in the anterior pituitary gland that triggers ovulation?
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
What are the 2 glands for Thyroid Hormones?
1. Thyroid Gland
2. Parathyroid Gland
Triidothyronine (T3)(5%) and Thyroxine (T4)(95%) and Calcitonin are located in the_________ _________?
What are the roles of Triidothyronine (T3)(5%) and Thyroxine (T4)(95%) in the thyroid gland?
Metabolic Rate, Mobilization of Fuels, Growth
What is the role of calcitonin in the thyroid gland?
Decreases Plasma (Ca2+)
What is the role of the parathyroid hormone in the parathyroid gland?
Increases Plasma (Ca2+)
What are 4 characteristics of testosterone?
1. Protein Synthesis
2. Secondary Sex Characteristics
3. Sex Drive
4. Sperm Production
Estrogen and Progesterone and Testosterone
What are 3 characteristics of estrogen?
1. Fat Deposition
2. Secondary Sex Characteristics
3. Ovum Development
What 3 hormones are found in the pancreas?
What is the role of Insulin in the Pancreas?
Increases the uptake of glucose, amino acids, and FFA
What is the role of Glucagon in the Pancreas?
Increases glucose and FFA mobilization; gluconeogenesis
What is the role of Somatostatin in the Pancreas?
Enhances rate of entry of nutrients into circulation from GI
What are the 2 glands located above the kidneys?
1. Adrenal Cortex
2. Adrenal Medulla (Catecholamines)
What 2 hormones do the adrenal cortex realease?
What is the role of the Adrenal Medulla?
Secretes Epinephrine (80%) and Norepinephrine (20%)
What is the Interstital Fibroblasts in the kidney?
Regulates (RBC) in blood
What is Erythropoietin (EPO)
Regulates (RBC) in blood
What are the 5 Hormone Functions?
1. Metabolic Effects
2. Calcium Regulation
3. Anabolic Effects
4. Blood Volume
5. Stress Hormones
What are the 3 hormones dealing with the metabolic effect?
1. Triiodothyronine(T3) and Thyroxine(T4)
What stimulates T3 and T4?
Thyroid Stimulating Hormones (TSH)
Low Thyroid hormones __________ Metabolic rate?
High thyroid hormones __________ metabolic rate
What increases 'Free' T3 ans T4
What 3 factors stimulate insulin?
1. Increase in blood (Glucose)
2. Increase in blood (Catecholamine)
3. Increase in blood (Luecine)
What are 3 functions of insulin?
1. Uptake and storage of glucose and FFA
2. Plasma concentration decreases during exercise
3. Decreased insulin response following training
What stimulates Glucagon?
Decrease in blood (Glucose)
What are the 3 functions of Glucagon?
1. Mobilization of glucose and FFA fuels
2. Plasma concentration increases during exercise
3. Decreased response following training
What increases blood (Glucagon)?
What 2 hormones are associated with calcium regulation?
2. Parathyroid Hormone
What stimulates the Parathyroid Hormone?
Low Plasma (Ca2+)
What is the primary hormone in plasma Ca2+ regulation?
What are 3 Functions of the Parathyroid Hormone?
1. Stimulates release from bone,
2. Stimulates absorption of Ca2+ by kidneys
3. Converts vitamin D3 into a hormone that increase Ca2+ absorption from GI tract
What stimulates Calcitonin?
Elevated Plasma (Ca2+)
What is the function if Calcitonin?
Regulation of plasma Ca2+
What is the effect of exercise on calcitonin?
Exercise has no effect on calcitonin.
What 3 things stimulate Growth Hormones?
3. Low Blood (Glucose)
What are the 4 Functions of Growth Hormones?
1. Stimulates release of IGFs
2. Stimulates protein synthesis and tissue growth
3. Increases gluconeogenesis in liver
4. Blocks glucose entry into adipose cell to favor fat mobilization.
What 3 factors inhibit Growth Hormones?
What increases protein synthesis in muscle and long bone growth?
Maturation of the sex organs, deepening of the voice, growth of the beard and axillary hair. Many of these fall into the category of male secondary sex characteristics
Growth of muscle mass and strength, increased bone density and strength, and stimulation of linear growth and bone maturation.
Testosterone is Stimulated by
Increase in FSH and LH
Testosterone works by interacting with
____ can increase muscle protein synthesis
Antidiuretic Hormone stimulated by a
Decrease in plasma volume and a increase in osmoility
Antidiuretic Hormone does..
Reduces water loss from the body to maintain plasma volume
Release stimulated by high plasma osmoility and low plasma volume
What % of VO2 max is increased during exercise for ADH
Greater than 60%
Aldosterone is stimulated by:
Increased Plasma K+
Decreased plasma volume
Aldosterone does what
Control of Na+ reabsorption and K+ secreation
Regulation of blood volume and blood pressure
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Catecholamines stimulated by
Low blood pressure, low blood glucose, "stress"
Catecholamines Functions are
Increases glycogenolysis, FFA mobilization, heart rate, stroke volume, and peripheral resistance
Cortisol stimulated by:
ACTH from stress bone breaks, intense exercise, burns
Promotes protein breakdown for gluconeogenesis
stimulates FFA mobilization
Stimulates glucose synthesis
blocks uptake of glucose in cells
In Addition to storing triglycerides, adipose tissue also secrets
Secretion is proportional to body fat
decreases appetite through the hypothalamus
enhances insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation
Increases insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation
With increased fat mass Leptin sensitivity
Skeletal muscle produces myokines when it
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