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Swine Anesthesia (L&J Ch50)
Terms in this set (33)
Pigs are difficult to restrain because of their body shape and lack of appendages to be readily grasped by handlers. What are options for restraining adult pigs for PE/ injections? (4)
-Hog board to isolate in corner
-Guide into transport cart
-Pig sling (hammock w/ leg holes)
-Snout snare (uncomfortable!)
Pigs have limited superficial veins that can be accessed easily to inject drugs. What are your best options? (2)
-Marginal ear (auricular) veins are best
-Cephalic vein (usually blind stick)
(NB: Saphenous is usually NOT good option; Ext jugular can be cannulated but is often reserved for blood draws)
For IM injections in pigs, where should you aim in piglets? In adults?
-Piglets: Muscles of the thigh
-Adults: Behind the base of the ear (Layer of fat is thinner, tissues better perfused)(Going in thigh >> Abscess, needle breakage for adults)
For IM injections in pigs, why must you use a long needle?
So injection doesn't go intra-fat >> Delaying absorption/ distribution
(Gauge: Piglets 20, up to 14 for adults)
Presurgical fasting time should be at least ________ for adult pigs and should be inc to __________ when sx will manipulate GI or abdominal organs.
Neonates should only be fasted for ______ to prevent hypoglycemia.
When is water withheld?
-Fast adults at least
for abdominal surgery
-Fast neonates for only
allowed until time of sx
UNLESS stomach/ upper GI sx then remove
What is the normal HR of pigs?
Why is it not ideal to reverse benzos/ alpha 2 agonists during pig recovery BEFORE ketamine has been metabolized?
If ketamine is the only drug left on board >> Hyperkinesia of limbs, Ataxia, Distress vocalization, Hypersalivation, Hyperresponsiveness
What kind of drug is azaperone?
Butyrophenone neuroleptic agent
Specifically describe how you induce GA with inhalant
-Iso 3-5% or Sevo 4-6%
-O2 4-8L/min +/- N2O at 1:1 ratio w/ O2
Why do some recommend adding N2O at a 1:1 ratio with O2 to hasten inhalant induction?
The second gas effect:
-N2O gets rapidly transported from alveoli to blood >> Improves uptake of inhalant agent into blood
What are the benefits of maintaining anesthesia with a O2-N2O-inhalant mixture in pigs?
MAC values are additive, so adding N2O reduces the dose requirement of sevo >> Dec cardiopulm depression from sevo and makes more physiologically stable
(50-66% N2O in 50-35% O2 is common with sevo/ iso/ des)
Why is it important to intubate pigs for procedures lasting longer than a few mins or for procedures that require them to be unconscious and in dorsal recumbency? (4)
-Resp depression from sedatives/ GA
-High work of breathing d/t narrow upper airway
-Prone to laryngospasm
-Fluids accum in pharynx/ Regurg/ Asp
Why is intubation of pigs challenging?
-Difficult to visualize larynx (thick tongue, long/ narrow oropharynx, elongated soft palate)
-Pharyngeal diverticulum protrudes from wall of pharynx above esophagus
-Obtuse angle b/w floor of lateral ventricles and trachea
Why might inserting the ETT too far result in difficulty in maintaining inhalant anesthesia?
Too far >> Block
right cranial bronchus
Because intubation in pigs can be challenging and potentially result in a prolonged period of hypoventilation or apnea, what should you ideally do prior to induction?
Pre-oxygenate via tight-fitting face mask for 5-10 mins (unless pig struggles with restraint)
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