23 terms

AP Gov Chapter 5 Vocab

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Civil Rights
Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals
Fourteenth Amendment
"No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
Equal Protection of the Laws
The guarantee in the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that all persons be treated equally by the law
Scott v. Sanford
(1857, Taney). Speaking for a widely divided court, Chief Justice Taney ruled that Dred Scott was not a citizen and had no standing in court; Scott's residence in a free state and territory had not made him free since he returned to Missouri; Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in a territory (based on the 5th Amendment right of a person to be secure from seizure of property), thus voiding the Missouri Compromise of 1820
Thirteenth Amendment
1865 constitutional amendment that abolished slavery
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal "separate but equal"
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment. The law was passed during a period of great strength for the civil rights movement, and President Lyndon Johnson persuaded many reluctant members of Congress to support the law
Suffrage
Right to vote
Poll Taxes
Small taxes levied on the right to vote that often fell at a time of year when poor African-American share croppers had the least cash on hand. Southern States used these to exclude them from voting until they were declared void by the 24th Amendment
White Primary
A form of restricting African American's 15th Amendment rights during the Jim Crow Era by only allowing whites to vote in the primary elections; giving African Americans only the opportunity to vote for white racist A or white racist B
24th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it brought jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures
Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings
Affirmative Action
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination
Hernandez v. Texas
A 1954 Supreme Court decision that extended protection against discrimination to Hispanics
Korematsu v. United States
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor
Reed v. Reed
The landmark case in 1971 in which the Supreme Court for the first time upheld a claim of gender discrimination
Craig v. Boren
1976 S.Ct. dec. determined that gender classification cases would have a "heightened" or "middle level" of scrutiny. In other words, courts were to show less deference to gender classifications than to more routine classifications, but more deference than to racial classifications
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
(1978) Government may take race into account when it acts not to insult any racial group but to remedy disadvantages cast on minorities by past racial prejudice
Adarand Constructors v. Pena
A 1995 Supreme Court decision holding that federal programs that classify people by race, even for an ostensibly benign purpose such as expanding opportunities for minorities, should be presumed to be unconstitutional