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organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
the capture of usable energy from the environment to produce organic compounds in which that energy is stored
the amount of living material, or the amount of organic material contained in living organisms, both as live or dead material, as in leaves (live) and stem wood (dead) of trees
an organism (bacteria) that derives energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide
ecosystem energy flow
movement of energy through an ecosystem from external environment through a series of organisms and back to external environment
a measure in a system of the amount of energy that is unavailable for useful work; as the disorder of a system increases, the entropy in a system also increases
the gross primary production of an ecosystem minus the energy used by the producers for respiration
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy (organic compounds) by autotrophs (producers) in an ecosystem during a given time period
the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy by breaking down complex organic molecules
the amount of chemical energy in consumers' (heterotrophs) food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period
formed by an energy source, ecosystem, and energy sink, where the ecosystem is said to be an intermediate system between the energy source and the energy sink
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