Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Psychology of Learning TEST 1
Terms in this set (22)
behavior is strengthened by the addition of a stimulus or an increase in the intensity of the stimulus as a consequence of the behavior.
behavior is strengthened by the removal of a stimulus or a decrease in the intensity of a stimulus as a consequence of the behavior.
behavior is weakened by the addition of a stimulus or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus as a consequence of the behavior.
behavior is weakened by the removal of a stimulus or a decrease in the intensity of a stimulus as a consequence of the behavior.
List and discuss the 4 assumptions of the natural science approach.
All natural phenomena are caused. Things do not "just happen;" they are the results of other events.
Causes precede their effects. Dr. Semmelweis assumed that whatever caused patients in a hospital to get childbed fever to occur before they became ill.
The causes of natural events include only natural phenomena. Mind, spirits, psychic energy, and other mysterious forces have no place in the natural science approach. The simplest explanation that fits the data best. This is a fundamental tenet of all sciences known as the law of parsimony. It means, in part, that fewer assumptions (unverified events) required by an explanation, the better.
What are the 7 ways of measuring learning? Briefly discuss each and give examples.
Errors- A common way of measuring learning is to look for a reduction in errors.
Topography- Learning may be measured as a change in the topography of a behavior, which refers to the form a behavior takes.
Intensity- We can also measure learning by noting change in the intensity of behavior.
Speed- A change in the speed with which a behavior is performed is another measuring of learning.
Latency- A similar measure of learning is a change in latency, the time that passes before a behavior occurs.
Rate- Learning is often measure as a change in the rate at which a behavior occurs.
Fluency- Fluency is a measure of learning that combines errors and rate; it is the number of correct responses per minute.
What is a cumulative recorder? How does it work? What dimensions of behavior is it capable of recording?
An apparatus (or software) that records every occurrence of a behavior, thereby producing a cumulative record. When the behavior occurred, the pen moved a short distance at a right angle to the length of the paper. The higher the rate of behavior, the more pen movements and the steeper the slope of the ink line; the lower the rate, the flatter the line.
Describe anecdotes as sources of data. What is the problem with anecdotes?
Are first- or secondhand reports of personal experiences. They are include specific information about measures of learning, such as the number of errors made, but they are more often less specific. The problem with anecdotes is they provided useful leads, and they keep us in contact with "popular wisdom," which, after all, is not always wrong. Still, better evidence is required for a science of learning.
Describe case studies. What are the strengths and weaknesses of case studies?
A case study is a detailed study and description of a single case, such as a person who is a compulsive hand washer. Case studies often used in clinical settings in attempt to identify the sources of a disorder and/or its effective treatment. The strengths of a case study is the case study is a step above the anecdote because at least the data are obtained in a fairly systematic way. The weakness of a case study is that they take a good deal of time. Another problem with case studies are that they cannot answer certain questions about behavior. Lastly, case study evidence is also flawed in that much of the data obtained come not by direct observation of the participant's behavior, but from what the participant or other people report about the participant's behavior.
Describe descriptive studies. What are the strengths and weaknesses of descriptive studies?
The researcher attempts to describe a group by obtaining data from its members- often by conducting interviews or administering questionnaires. The strengths are they represent a vast improvement over case studies, they reduce the risk that a few unrepresentative participants will lead to false conclusions. The weakness are they can suggest hypotheses to explain a phenomenon, they cannot test those hypotheses.
Describe how experiments work. Define "independent variables" and "dependent variables".
Experiment- is a study in which a researcher manipulates one or more variables and measures the effects of this manipulation on one or more other variables.
Independent variables: the variables the researcher manipulates.
Dependent variables: those that are allowed to vary freely.
Describe between-subjects experiments and explain control groups and experimental groups.
Between-subjects experiments: the researcher typically identifies two or more groups of participants.
Control group: those who are not exposed to it.
Experimental group: the participants who are exposed to the aggression-including experience.
Discuss 2 ways of assigning participants to control groups and experimental groups.
Participants are usually assigned at random to one of the groups. This may be done, for example, by flipping a coin; if the coin comes up heads, the participant goes into the experimental condition; tails, the participant is in the control group. Another way of assigning participants are matched sampling.
Describe within-subjects experiments. How are they different from between-subjects experiments?
Within-subject experiment is the alternative to the between-subjects design.
within-subject is different from between subjects because the participants behavior is observed before the experimental treatment and then during or after it.
between-subject design the researcher typically identifies two or more groups of participants
Why do you think within-subjects designs might sometimes be called single-subjects designs?
because they measure a single participants behavior versus measuring the behavior of multiple participants behaviors. their results are recorded independently.
What is a baseline phase? How is it useful? Is the baseline phase more similar to the control group or the experimental group?
the baseline is the initial period during which a participants behavior is observed. it is useful because it provides a basis for comparison. the baseline phase is more similar to the control group; because it is behavior that is being observed.
Describe what is meant by an ABA reversal design. Why is an ABA design referred to as a reversal design?
ABA reversal design is were the researcher switches back and forth between A and B conditions, which allows them to demonstrate the extent to which a behavior is influenced by the independent variable. the date are all more convincing if they are replicated with additional participants, but large numbers of participants are unnecessary.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of laboratory experiments and field experiments?
the strengths for laboratory experiment are:
- easier to replicate the laboratory experiment
- it allows for precise control of extraneous and independent variables.
The weaknesses are:
- that the artificiality of the setting may produce unnatural behavior that does not reflect real life.
- Demand characteristics or experimenter effects may become bias effecting the results.
the strengths for field experiment are:
- it is more likely to reflect real life
- there is less likelihood for demand characteristics that would affect results.
the weaknesses are:
- there is less control over extraneous variables that might be bias to the results.
What do we mean when we say that experiments are "artificial"? How is this both a good thing and a bad thing? What can be done to reduce the need for artificial environments? How might this negatively impact the experiment?
Artificial means that the experiment occurs in an extremely sterile environment which means a small chamber room. this is good because the control makes the experiment seem artificial so that the independent variable can be isolated. the bad thing is under artificial conditions the responses may not always correspond with what would occur under more natural conditions.
Why do researchers who are interested in human behavior study animals such as rats and pigeons?
the use of animals make it possible to control over heredity and learning history, and it allows for researchers to get away with certain things that is not ethical to do on humans.
What are the objections to using nonhuman animals in research?
people are not alike, nor do they behave like animals, so there is no practical value, and it is intrinsically unethical.
Discuss the guidelines created to protect nonhuman research subjects.
guideline are set standards that are for the care and handling of animals, the use of adversaries, and not to overwork animals.
Other sets by this creator
BALC Final Exam
BALC Final Exam
BALC Final Exam
Recommended textbook solutions
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, Being
Michael R Solomon
Elliot Aronson, Robin M. Akert, Timothy D. Wilson
A Concise Introduction to Logic
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley