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AP US History study guide unit 1
Valladolid, Colombian Exchange, Protestant
Terms in this set (28)
Comes from the french word meaning rebirth, in this case, the rebirth of learning and adopting newer technologies. This is also known to be the start of the modern age, with additions like the compass.
Comes from the Latin word meaning to renew, in this case, the renewal/removal of corrupt practices among religion. 16th century European centered faction intended to reform the practices of the Roman Catholic church. Lutheranism- you shouldn't pay to obtain your position, you should be able to read the bible in different languages, you shouldn't have to pay for your mistakes, etc... Calvinism- heaven/hell is predetermined Church of england- creates his own church, wants a son, he blames his wife even though he's the one who can't provide it
The Encomienda system was when Indian workers were allocated (distribute resources) to Spanish settlers on the understanding that they would be instructed in the Christian faith in return for their labor. The options were either becoming a slave or a christian, so people pretended to be christian to avoid being enslaved.
If a conquistador wanted land, it's under their control and population. A system where the Spanish brought slaves from West Africa after the Native Americans began dying from diseases and brutality. ONLY Great Britain could sell slaves in the Spanish colonies (trade agreement). Agreement between the Spanish crown and different traders to give slaves from Africa to different colonies.
Out of all of the crops, corn definitely had one of the biggest impacts on agriculture in Asia, Europe, and Africa. It grew in places unsuitable for tubers, gave many harvests, could be used as livestock feed, helped population growth, etc... Corn had political consequences in Africa, since it would take longer to spoil, people would hoard it, and ONLY give it to those who were loyal, and deny it from others. The durability of corn contributed to commercialization in Africa, they used it to feed the slaves/armies/merchants when they were walking country to country. AKA helped slave traders expand their business. Some cold climates weren't good for corn.
New Laws of 1542
Meant to abolish the encomienda system by outlawing it's ongoing presence by inheritance. Some colonizers were against the idea, but the laws were successful
Bartolomé de Las Casas
Las Casas was a passive converter, a slow process. People were actually motivated to become christian, since it wasn't forced upon them. Against encomienda system
Juan Gines de Sepulveda
Sepulveda's side of the argument was that they can't govern themselves, they are barbaric. The encomienda system is justified, they can FORCIBLY convert Native Americans to christianity. Not as successful, since people "pretend" to be christian so that they don't have to be a slave. Indians were "natural born slaves"
The exchange of diseases, plants, and animals between the Old World (Asia, Europe, Africa) and the New World (The Americas).
Old world contributions
The old world contributed Measles, smallpox, influenza, mumps, typhus, whooping cough, falciparum malaria, and yellow fever. Sources of hide, wool, and animal protein. Horses and oxen, Better transportation through animals. Wheat, rice, rye, barley, watermelon, yams, sorghum, millets, coffee, okra, bananas, oranges, lemons, citrus fruits, grapes,
New world contributions
The new world contributed to Syphilis and tuberculosis. Acquired horses from Spanish new Mexico. Ducks, turkeys, alpacas, llamas Hide, wool, and animal protein. Maize, potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, peanuts, pumpkins, squash, pineapple, peppers, tobacco
Europe would give Africa manufactured goods. Africa would give the new world slaves. The new world would give Europe cash crops.
Valladolid organized the world into two modes by considering Native Americans as barbaric and Europeans and American-born were seen to be civilized.
When a farmer only grows crops for himself and his family, so that there's nothing extra. Native Indians used this method on their own crops.
Eastern woodland American group (mohaws, oneidas, onondagas, carugas, senecas). They aimed to create an empire by incorporating subservient, conquered peoples.
The plantation system developed in the American South as the British colonists arrived in Virginia and divided the land into large areas suitable for farming. Because the economy of the South depended on the cultivation of crops, the need for agricultural labor led to the establishment of slavery.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Portugal got Brazil essentially. In other words, it was an agreement between Spain and Portugal supported by the Pope dividing South America between them with an imaginary line called the line of demarcation . Signed in 1494. When the conquistadors took over Mexico, the Spanish intermarried with the Aztecs and their cultures intermingled.
Explain the Valladolid debate going on in Spain, and its impact on the Encomienda System.
Valladolid was a debate regarding the nature of the Indians and Spanish America between Sepulveda and Las casas. Sepulveda thought Indians were barbaric and didn't deserve the right to make their own decisions. Las casas thought these people were rational and that enslaving them was against catholic religion. The debate was about the European colonization/population control of the new land. Whether or not the encomienda system could continue; It also included debates about the right of conquest and just war. This eventually weakened the encomienda system but didn't abolish it completely.
Explain the different treatment/ relationships established by the 4 major countries colonizing the New World.
Spain wanted to gather gold, and bring it back to their country, a semi-passive form of colonization. They also intended to expand Catholicism. Similarly, France wanted to establish a trade relationship, not take gold, a passive form of colonization. On the other hand, Dutch and England wanted to bring their entire family because of the horrible religious customs back home. Essentially invaded the land because of their unideal conditions at home.
Indulgences/simony, everyone being able to communicate with god directly, bible has authority. Christian believer who wrote 95 theses and displayed them on the door of the churches. He explained that indulgences/simony was unethical, that the translation of the bible should be a natural thing (not only in latin language), and that people shouldn't have the benefit of "paying" to become a priest. Martin Luther then created a Lutheran church, which helped to convert authority figures' beliefs, and soon after their followers. His movement also helped bring people forward who were catholic, so a whole bunch of religions helped form the protestant reformation
. Why is disease so devastating for the Native population in the Americas? What does this lead to when discussing the relationships of the Spanish and the Native people
The Native Americans never had any of the infectious diseases that were in Eurasia and Africa. A couple years later, the Native American population dropped between 50-95 percent due to those diseases; high mortality rate. The diseases that were in Eurasia and Africa didn't affect the people living there since their immune systems were used to it, but that wasn't the case for the Native Americans. The relationship between the Spanish and the Native people was pretty sour, since the Spanish first took their land, and secondly killed off the majority of the population with diseases.
Discuss the major regional Indian tribes; Southwest, Northwest, Great Plains, Midwest, and northeast. Include their social structure, living conditions, and major food source.
Native people all have a societal construct and a culture that is unique to each and every group
they used a lot of agriculture, and relied on corn as their major food source. Lived in Adobe homes.
hunting and gathering, mainly fishing due to the proximity of water. Also had a lot of forests/rocks. Lived in wooden lodges.
they used hunting, had a lot of wide open land, and relied on buffalo/horses as their major food source. Flat landscapes, many rivers, they were nomadic. Lived in teepees.
Depended on the river valleys to hunt, fish, and gather. They were nomadic. Lived in large white teepees.
hunted and farmed, but constantly moving around since the soil was overused. Iroquois confederation was part of the northeast, they resisted European influence, first to come into contact with them. Lived in wigwams or longhouses.
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