25 terms

Chapter 15

Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
social psychology
Attribution theory was designed to account for:
how people explain others' behavior.
The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.
situational influences; personal dispositions
Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of personal dispositions by ________ and in terms of situational influences by ________.
political conservatives; political liberals
Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.
belief-based feelings
The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the:
foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to:
comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.
Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of:
role-playing on attitudes.
Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?
cognitive dissonance theory
Normative social influence results from peoples' desire to:
gain social approval.
After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul's behavior best illustrates the impact of:
informational social influence.
Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because:
the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.
According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that:
even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.
Social facilitation refers to the tendency to:
perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.
The presence of others ________ a person's performance on well-learned tasks and ________ a person's performance on unmastered tasks.
improves; hinders
Deindividuation refers to:
a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
A terrorist mentality that becomes increasingly extreme among people who interact without outside moderating influences best illustrates:
group polarization.
Prejudice is best defined as:
an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members.
At a conscious level, Aaron doesn't think he's prejudiced. Yet he automatically feels uncomfortable in situations where he has to interact with people of different races from his own. Aaron's experience best illustrates the distinction between:
explicit and implicit attitudes.
People tend to perceive the members of an outgroup as ________ each other and the members of an ingroup as ________ each other.
similar to; different from
According to the text, aggression always involves:
the intent to hurt.
Aggressive behavior is most likely to be ________ by injections of testosterone and ________ by consumption of alcohol.
increased; increased
In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves:
role-playing aggression.
vetlana, a 20-year-old college sophomore, is beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ________ than less attractive college women.
be perceived as more socially skilled
The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the:
emergency is being observed by a number of other people.