Positive Symptoms: Normal + SXS = Schizo
- Reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions
- Include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought and speech, disorganized motor disturbances.
Negative Symptoms: Subtracted/Missing
- Consist of behavioral deficits.
- Include flat affect (lack of facial expression), alogia (lack of speech output), avolition (lack of motivation).
Involves delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, abnormal psychomotor behavior, diminished speech, limited emotions, or loss of energy.
Psychopharmacology is the scientific study of how psychotropic medications alter perception, mood, behavior, and other aspects of psychological functioning.
Psychotropic drugs include antidepressant, mood-stabilizing, antipsychotic, and antianxiety drugs. When severe symptoms do not improve with medication and psychotherapy, other biomedical options are available:
- Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which causes seizures in the brain, for cases of severe depression
- Neurosurgery, which destroys some portion of the brain or connections between different areas of the brain, only as a last resort.
The common goal of biomedical interventions is to treat the biological basis of psychological disorders through physical interventions.
Social psychology is the study of human cognition, emotion, and behavior in relation to others.
This includes how we perceive and react to others, are influenced by interactions with others, and behave in social settings.
Social psychology focuses on studying individuals in relation to others and groups, whereas sociology studies the groups themselves—their cultures, societies, and subcultures. Using the same general research methods as other psychologists, social psychologists often conduct studies involving confederates, or people who are secretly working for them. At the end of a study, researchers debrief participants, or review aspects of the research they had previously concealed.
The urge to modify behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and opinions to match those of others is known as conformity.
There are three major reasons we conform:
- Normative social influence
- Informational social influence
- Group we respect/admire
Most people want approval, to be liked and accepted by others. This desire, known as normative social influence, can have a significant impact on behaviors.
A second reason to conform is that we want to be correct. We look to others for confirmation when we are uncertain about something, and then do as they do. This is known as informational social influence.
Finally, we may conform to others because they belong to a certain reference group we respect, admire, or long to join.
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins