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Psychology - Final Exam Questions

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Psychology is best defined as
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes (and the factors that affect them).
Psychologists gather information using empiricism, which means that they
gather first-hand information about a specific topic.
The question of nature verses nurture in psychology (suggested by Locke and Rousseau) means
whether the underlying cause of behavior is from genetics or some form of learning.
When Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees in Africa, she used the ________ ________ method of research.
naturalistic observation
Correlation refers to the extent to which two factors
vary together, and one factor (or variable) can predict the other.
Controlled experiments allow researchers to establish ____________ relationships between variables.
cause-and-effect
In an experiment, the factor that may be influenced or manipulated by the experimenter is called the
independent variable
Roca has children watch either violent or nonviolent cartoons. Later, she watches to see which groups of children have the most fights. The number of fights that each child engages in is the
dependent variable
A testable prediction is about the relationship between two variables or the effect of one variable on another and becomes the basis of an experiment is a
hypothesis
To avoid bias and confounding variables in a controlled experiment, participants should be assigned to either the experimental or control group
randomly
The best way to eliminate experimental bias is to
use a double-blind design
When we say that scientist approach the views and opinions of others with skepticism, we mean scientists are
open minded but insist that others present valid data to demonstrate their views.
As described in the textbook, an integrated understanding of the human behavior in terms of its cultural, biological, and psychological influences best illustrates the goal of
a bio-psychosocial approach
As a signal travels from one neuron to another, it is received by the___________ and carried to the cell body; from there, the signal is carried through the _______.
dendrites; axon
When the electrochemical impulse reaches the end of a neuron (axon terminals), _________________are released into the_________
neurotransmitters; synapse
A synapse is a
junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
The central nervous system consists of
the brain and the spinal cord
A neural system in the lower-center of the cerebrum, generally located below the corpus callosum, and involved in processing memory, emotions and sensations, is known as the
limbic system
Which of the following body parts is associated with the greatest amount of brain tissue in the motor cortex?
face
Since Gordon sustained severe head trauma, he can no longer perform such basic sewing tasks such as threading a needle. When he plays the piano, it is as if his fingers do not remember how to make the necessary movements, even for pieces that he has known for years. Gordon most likely has damage to his
cerebellum
After an evil scientist destroys part of Richard's brain, Richard finds that he is constantly hungry and he eats much more than he had before. The scientist destroyed his
hypothalamus
The bundle of fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the brain is specifically known as the
corpus callosum
A mosquito bites your left arm, this will be perceived in an area in the ____________ lobe of your brain.
right parietal
Recordings of the collective electrical activity of the brain's nerve cells picked up by wires attached to the scalp are called
electroencephalograms (EEGs).
The cortex of the human brain appears extremely wrinkled (gyri and sulci). These wrinkles
allow a greater surface area of cortex to be included in the skull
Before neurotransmitters are released into synapse, they are held in containers known as
vesicles
Psychologists define stress as
a process by which we appraise and respond to threatening or challenging events.
A stressor is best defined as
an event that causes an individual to change or adapt
While taking a difficult test, Cindy's muscles tense and her heart pounds. These physiological responses are
stress reactions
Which of the following is the best example of a chronic stressor?
Celina has been unable to find employment for six months.
According to Selye's general adaptation syndrome (GAS), when an organism appears to be settling in for a long-tem battle with a stressor, the__________ stage has been reached.
resistance
Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as
Type A personalities
Attempting to alleviate stress by changing the stressor is known as
problem-focused coping.
In a stressful environment, all of the following should help you cope with stress except
believing there is nothing to do but live with the problem
According to the textbook, the perception that our fate is determined by luck reflects an
external locus of control.
When a person is going through a long period of family and work problems, he is more likely to get frequent colds because
his immune system is suppressed
Alex experiences little stress because he expects things to work out the way he wants them to. This best illustrates the value of
an optimistic outlook
The study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes combine to affect our immune system and health is called
psychoneuroimmunology
According to the textbook, women have ________ immune systems, and they are _______ susceptible to many autoimmune disorders
stronger; more
Allison is explaining the difference between two psychological concepts: "When you hear a sound, that is _________; when you realize that the noise is the clock ticking, that is ____________
sensation; perception
Accessory structures are responsible for
collecting and modifying physical energy from the outside world.
The process by which our sensory systems convert environmental stimuli energies into neural impulses is called
transduction
As light passes through the eye, it takes which of the following paths?
Cornea, Pupil, lens, retina
The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by the
iris
As a rock musician who has spent too many hours listening to or playing loud music, Rodney is beginning to lose his hearing. It is most likely that his hearing loss results from damage to
hair cells
Which of the following is a chemical sense?
Taste
Receptor cells for kinesthesis are located in the
muscles, tendons, and joints
During a war, soldiers wear camouflage clothing so that they will not be perceived by enemies. The perceptual cue that is being manipulated in this example is
figure-ground.
Retinal disparity, which helps is to perceive depth, refers to the
somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object.
The monocular (stimulus) depth cue in which one object partially blocking another is perceived as closer is
interposition
When you look at the pattern XX XX XX, you perceive three "groups" of two items each rather than perceiving six separate items. This tendency is best explained by the perceptual principle of
proximity
According to the text, learning involves
a change in behavior due to experience
In Pavlov's experiments, the expected taste of food triggered the dog's salivation. The salivation was an
unconditioned response
After Maria drank coffee for the first time, she felt more awake. She then drank coffee every morning. Now when she even smells coffee, she feels more awake. Feeling more awake after just smelling the coffee is a
conditioned response
A child who has a conditioned fear against Santa Claus reacts with fear toward any gentlemen with a white (or gray) beard. This phenomenon is known as
stimulus generalization.
Watson and Raynor's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears, and perhaps phobias, may be learned through
classical conditioning
In operant conditioning, a__________ is followed by a__________
behavior; consequence
An event that strengthens the behavior it follows is a
reinforcement
Positive reinforcers__________ the rate if operant responding and negative reinforcers___________ the rate of operant responding
increase; increase
John broke his curfew, so his parents said he could not use the car for a month. This is an example of a
penalty punishment
Simba is a cat who likes to climb on curtains. His owner decides to stop this behavior by squirting Simba with a water gun every time the cat goes near the curtains. This is an example of
punishment
The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates
partial reinforcement.
Five-year-old Trevor refuses to communicate. To get him to speak, his teacher first gives him candy for any sound, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. This is the method of
shaping
Miko, a baby monkey, learns to wash her sweet potatoes to remove grit after seeing her mother do so. This is an example of
observed learning
The three basic processes of memory are
encoding, storage and retrieval
Caden can remember quite vividly the first time his dad took him out to learn how to ride a bike, because he didn't use training wheels and took a nasty spill, scraping his knee badly. This would best be described as an
episodic memory
Procedural memory is
memory of how things work
As you are taking notes in class, you repeat to yourself what your instructor just said so that you can write it down word for word. This is an example of
rehearsal
When an eyewitness to an accident is asked to describe what occurred, which test if memory is being used?
Recall
While the hippocampus plays a key role in forming episodic memories, which part of the brain plays a key role in forming and storing procedural memories such as habits, skills and classical conditioning?
Cerebellum
The capacity of short-term memory is, on average________ separate items or bits of information.
seven
Which of the following memory systems has the greatest storage capacity?
Long-term
When old or new learning blocks the recall of other memories, such as mixing up what happened at two different parties,___________ has occurred
interference
Which of the following is the best example of spreading activation network at work?
You start thinking about cars, and that leads you to think about trucks and sport-utility vehicles.
Jill has trouble remembering her classmates' names outside of the classroom where she learned them. This effect is probably due to
context cue memory
Most older adults can remember exactly when and where they heard of President Kennedy's assassination. Such so-called____________ memories are usually very detailed and vivid.
flashbulb
In the video about Clive Wearing, he described his experience as though, "I have just woken up." Apparently he could no longer form or have access to any
long-term memory.
Most human cells contain forty-six______________, which are each made up of thousands of_______, which, in turn are composed of_____
chromosomes; genes; DNA
The genome is the complete
set of genetic material in an organism's chromosomes
A child sees a piece of bread go down in a toaster, then turns away, believing it no longer exists. According to Piaget, this child does not yet understand
object permanence
Piaget's formal operational stage of cognitive development (age 12+) is marked by the first appearance of the ability to
engage in abstract, hypothetical thinking
Sean is a five-month-old infant who just met his Aunt Tina for the first time. He clung to his mother and cried when Aunt Tina first picked him up. After Aunt Tina had been there for a couple of hours, Sean cooed at her and no longer cried when she held him. Sean is most likely a
slow-to-warm-up baby
The close, mutual, emotional tie that develops between young children and their caregiver shown by their seeking closeness and distress on separation is known as an.
attachment
Harlow's classical research involved baby monkeys and artificial mothers constructed of wire and cloth. As a result of these studies, we now understand the importance of ____________ in early development
physical contact
Aaron cried when his mother left him in the church nursery. He was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later. Aaron showed signs of
insecure attachment
According to the textbook, Silas expects his son Cole to following his rules without talking. If Cole asks why he must do something, Silas responds, "Because I said so.: his parenting style is best described as
authoritative
A 12 year-old is happy, cooperative, self-reliant, and has a positive self-image. His parents are likely
authoritative
According to Erikson, the main issue of psychosocial development during the first year of like is
trust
The focus of psychosocial development in adolescence is_________ formation
identity
In the video, some genetically same mice became fat and yellow-coated while others remained normal sized and brown because of changes in .
gene expression due to their altered epi-genome
Which of the following terms refers to the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female?
gender
According to the textbook, compared with boys, girls are most likely to play in______ groups.
small
Gender role refers to a
set of expected behaviors for males or for females
Gender identity refers to
the sense if being male or female
As children are socialized, others have differing expectations and treat them differently (as in the baby "boy/girl" experiment described in class), if they are seen as either a boy or girl. This pattern is called
gender typing
A human egg (ovum) contains ______ chromosome and a human sperm contains either ___________ chromosome
an X ; an X or a Y
Susie and Ryan are playing house outside. Susie is pretending to bake cookies and clean the house, and Ryan is pretending to take care of the lawn and fix the car. Susie and Ryan's behaviors best illustrate
gender roles
In the sexual response cycle, when arousal, pulse and intensity is maintained and continue to increase is the
plateau stage
In the sexual response cycle, the refractory period is the
time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm
The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of
behavioral consistency
As discussed in class, the basic foundations of one's personality are one's
temperament and attachment
According to Freud, the unconscious is the
thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware
Which of the following approaches to personality assumes that our thoughts, feelings, and behavior are strongly influenced by conflicting and often unconscious forces?
Psychodynamic
According to Freud, the ego, the "CEO" of the mind, creates ways to get what one wants in a world full of dangers and rules and operates on the e
reality principle
Janine is a neat freak. She can't stand it when anything is out of order. She is also reluctant to lend anything to her friends. According to Freud, Janine is suffering from a fixation at the______ stage of development
anal
Four-year-old Sigmund prefers sleeping with his parents to sleeping in his own bed, but he gets upset when he sees his father kissing his mother. According to Freud, what issue is the boy probably dealing with?
Oedipus Complex
Felix has always been attracted to his best friend's girlfriend, and yet he always acts as if he is repulsed by her. Felix is most likely employing the defense mechanism known as
reaction formation.
Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for
self-actualization.
Carl Rogers suggested that the ______________ is a central feature of personality
self-concept
Personality factors are best described as clusters of behaviors tendencies that occur _______
together
One who is impulsive, careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of
conscientiousness
Post-Freudian, psychodynamic theorists, such as Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Erik Erikson and Alfred Adler, are most likely to disagree with Freud's assumption that
sexual drives are central to personality development
Psychologists define an ongoing pattern of behavior as disordered when it is
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.
According to the medical model, psychological disorders are
sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured
DSM-IV-TR diagnostic guidelines focus attention on observable patient behaviors in order to
enhance the reliability of diagnoses
Anxiety disorders are characterized by all of these symptoms except
a split between affect and cognition
Mary thinks she has cancer, but no doctor has been able to find anything wrong with her. She has been going from one doctor to another for five years. She is most likely suffering from
hypochondriasis
For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from
major depressive disorder.
Norman Bates is a hotel owner with a calm, laid-back style of living who occasionally "splits" into a different personality. This other person is a cranky, violent old woman. Norman is exhibiting
dissociative identity disorder
Ben has felt sad and hopeless for more than two years now. He continues working but is unable to experience pleasure the way he used to. As described in class, his symptoms are most consistent with
dysthymic disorder
A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as
mania
Handel composed his Messiah in three weeks of intense, creative energy. He may have suffered from a mild
bipolar disorder
All of the following often appear as symptoms of schizophrenia except
multiple personalities
Samuel has schizophrenia. Which of the following would Samuel most likely think?
"I wish Fido would quit stealing the thoughts out of my head!"
Sandy, a twelve year-old, began stealing from local stores. The behavior continued and became more serious as she entered adulthood. She showed no empathy, guilt, or shame and always tried to manipulate other people with her superficial charm. She displays which personality disorder?
Antisocial
Which of the following treatments is not considered psychotherapy?
ECT-electroconvulsive therapy
Helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim of
psychoanalysis
During therapy, Maggie begins to treat her male therapist as if he were her abusive father. Freud would take note of the client's reaction toward the therapist, which is a process called
transference
Modern psychodynamic psychotherapy differs from Freudian psychoanalysis in that there is now
more attention given to attachment patterns and interpersonal relationships.
Part of Carl Roger's humanistic, client-centered therapy consists of treating the client as a valued person, regardless of what he/she says or does. Approval is not necessary, but acceptance without judgment is. This best describes the concept of
unconditional positive regard
To treat a client's fear of rabbits, a therapist has the client engage in progressive relaxation training. He then asks the client to imagine a rabbit in a cage in the next room. While still relaxed, the client next imagines a rabbit in a cage in the same room, followed by a rabbit outside of the cage. The client is undergoing
systemic desensitization
To help Claire quit smoking, a therapist delivers an electric shock to her arm each time she smokes a cigarette. The therapist is using
aversive conditioning
The children's book The Little Engine That Could, in which the engine successfully puffs up a mountain while saying, "I think I can, I think I can!" best illustrates the power of
cognitive-behavioral therapy
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for many decades and for many different disorders. Today, ECT is used sparingly and only under certain conditions, primarily in the treatment of
severe depression
____________ is most responsible for reducing the number of patients in U.S Mental Hospitals
Drug therapy
Sluggishness, tremors and twitches similar to those of Parkinson's disease are serious side effects that may accompany the long-term use of certain____________ drugs
antipsychotic
Tisha suffers from schizophrenia. Tisha's hallucinations and delusions will probably be reduced if she takes
Thorazine
All types of treatment for psychological disorders share these basics features except
exploring the role of early childhood experiences