Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
COGNITION AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
Terms in this set (36)
describe top-down processing
information processing based on previous knowledge or schemata; allows us to make inferences
describe bottom-up processing
information processing based on data immediately present
describe discrete processing
there is no overlap between processes; water wheel analogy
describe the notion of Cascade model of processing
indicates there is overlap between processes; waterfall analogy
define and be able to identify examples of Declarative and Procedural memory
declarative memory: can be consciously recalled (episodic: autobiographical/ semantic: factual information)
procedural memory: how to do things (subconscious)
what is the Critical Period Hypothesis?
Language can only happen in an early critical period, and if they do not happen then language development will not be normal
what is the Cognitive Hypothesis of language development?
idea that language is a product of cognitive development, and not a specific module or system
identify Piaget's stages of cognitive development
1. sensorimotor: 0-2
2. preoperational: 2-7
3. operational: 7-11
4. formal: 11-15
what are the 3 behaviors central to sensorimotor development?
what are the 3 concepts central to sensorimotor development?
1. object permanence
discuss the relationship between language and thought
4 possible relationships:
1. cognitive development determines language development
2. language and cognition are SEPARATE faculties
3. language and cognition arise separately but are dependent on the other
4. language determines cognition
describe vygotsky's learning theory
believed learning is a social process and the origination of human intelligence in society or culture
Two stages of learning:
1. through interaction with others
2. integrating that into the individual's mental structure.
"private speech" grows out of an innate need to engage with others
the "Zone of Proximal Development" is when teacher or more experienced peer is able to provide the learner with "scaffolding" to support the student's evolving understanding of knowledge or development of complex skills
discuss and identify examples of nonliteral language
how do we retrieve stored vocabulary?
1. semantic categorical information (context clues?)
2. externally provided auditory cues (prompt: "name all the animals you can" will increase recall)
3. visual cues
what are the syntactic milestones for school-age children?
- preschool: embeds infinitive phrases, object complements, and relative clauses modifying noun phrases in the OBJECT position, but not in the subject position
- 7 yr old: produce sentences in which the relative pronoun is deleted but understood
- 12 yr old: will correctly interpret embedded sentences, no matter where the embedding occurs
describe the mechanism of conjoining sentences.
what are areas of pragmatic growth for school-age children?
-topic collaboration: repetition of content to maintain topic (preschool)
- topic incorporation: adding new information (school-age)
- topic shading: the ability to move from one topic to a different, related topic
a self contained set of processes
the idea that the mind is built from separate processes
ex) Broca and Wernicke's area of aphasia
the ability to orient and react to a specific stimulus
the ability to attend to a specific stimuli in a field of stimuli
the ability to systemize incoming information to speed up processing and facilitate retrieval
the process we use to integrate separate pieces of information into a linked system
the ability to arrange stimuli in a step-by-step or linear sequence
the ability to apply learned information to new problems
transfer of information
the ability to retain and recall information
what is Language Acquisition Device?
Chomsky believed the LAD was the innate ability to learn language
what is the strong form cognitive hypothesis?
cognition is necessary and sufficient for language development
what is the weak form cognitive hypothesis?
cognition is necessary but not sufficient for language development
language needs its own module (like LAD)
a concept, mental category, or cognitive structure
what is the difference between assimilation and accommodation?
assimilation: the cognitive process whereby a NEW stimulus is added to an EXISTING schema
accommodation: the development of new schema to allow the organization of existing stimuli that do not fit into any existing schema
the balance between the processes of assimilation and accommodation
the process by which we gain immediate awareness of what is happening outside ourselves
(when babies just want to put everything in their mouths)
refers to the child's increasing capacity to relate to stimuli from greater and greater distance
(a baby doesn't feel the need to grab or put everything in its mouth anymore)
what is the sapir-whorf hypothesis?
the form of our language will determine the structure of our thought process
what is the syntagmatic-paradigmatic shift?
- a child's change in processing and organization of words
- younger children organize words by their syntax- a noun followed by a verb (cold/ outside) (mommy/ kiss)
- as children age, they organize words by their semantic meaning (paradigmatic) (cold/ hot)
Sets found in the same folder
PUBLIC SCHOOL SLP AND PUBLIC LAW
CONTEXTUALIZED LANGUAGE INTERVENTION
CONTEXTUALIZED FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING LANGUAGE DI…
COMMUNICATION DISORDERS IN A PLURALISTIC SOCIETY
Sets with similar terms
Psy 042 Chapters 7 and 8
Developmental Psych exam 2
Other sets by this creator
SETS OF 3 - TEST 1
LANGUAGE INTERVENTION: SEMANTICS
SWALLOWING TEST 1
FLUENCY TEST 1