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Biology - Chapter 1: The Study of Life
Terms in this set (110)
the theory of evolution
the unifying theme of biology and explains the history and diversity of life on this planet.
nature of science
the study of science involves the processes of making observations, forming hypotheses, and conducting experiments in an attempt to understand principles of life.
form communities of organisms to individual cells,, all life is connected, from the smallest atom to the largest ecosystem.
the scientific study of life
despite _______________________, all living things share the same basic characteristics.
1. living things are organized
2. life requires materials and energy
3. living things maintain homeostasis
4. living things respond to stimuli
5. living things reproduce and develop
6. living things have adaptations
General Characteristics of Life
the basic unit of structure and function of all living things.
As biological complexity increases, each level acquires new __________________________________________________.
smallest unit of an element composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
union of 2 or more atoms of the same or different elements.
a group of cells with a common structure and function.
composed of tissues functioning together for a specific task.
composed of several organs working together.
an individual; complex individuals contain organ systems.
-NOT A LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION
- a group of similar, interbreeding organisms.
organisms of the same species in a particular area.
interacting populations in a particular area.
a community plus the physical environment.
regions of the Earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere inhabited by living organisms.
the capacity to do work.
the chemical reactions that occur in a cell.
The _________________ is the ultimate source of energy for nearly all life on earth.
a process that converts solar energy into the chemical energy of carbohydrates.
characterized by chemical cycling and energy flow.
aren't used up when organisms die.
Chemicals move from one population to another in a ____________________________________.
As a result of __________________ and ___________________________, chemicals are returned to living plants.
Energy/ population/ solar energy.
______________________ from the sun flow through plants and other members of the food chain as one ___________________________ feeds on another.
Therefore, there must be a constant input of ___________________ ____________________________.
the maintenance of internal conditions within certain boundaries.
monitor internal conditions and make adjustments
Living things interact with the _________________________ and respond to _______________________ in the environment.
The ability to respond often produces ____________________.
All living tings must ________________ to maintain a population.
genetic information (genes)
When organisms reproduce, they pass on copies of their ________________________________________ to the next generation.
characteristics of an organism
Genes determine the _______________________________________.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Genes are composed of ___________________________________.
any modification that makes an organism better able to function in a particular environment.
diversity of life
exists because over long periods of time, organisms respond to changing environments by developing new adaptations.
the change in a population of organisms over time to become more suited to the environment
common descent with _________________________ (evolution)
natural selection (idea)
the evolutionary mechanism proposed by Charles Darwin.
part of the physical environment, such as altitude.
part of the living environment, such as a deer.
natural selection (process)
some aspect of the environment selects which traits are more apt to be passed on to the next generation.
- Individuals with favorable traits produce the greater number of offspring that survive and reproduce.
- Increases the frequency of those favorable traits in a population.
-fuel natural selection
-introduces variations among members of a population.
evolutionary tree of life
like a family tree but races the ancestry of life on Earth to a common ancestor.
the discipline of biology that identifies, names, and classifies organisms according to certain rules.
the study of evolutionary relationships between organisms.
classification categories (from least inclusive to most inclusive)
present only in domain Eukarya
- domain: archaea
- domain: bacteria
- domain: eukarya
contains unicellular prokaryotes that live in extreme environments probably similar to the primitive earth.
lack a membrane-bound nucleus.
contains unicellular prokaryotes that live in all environments including on our skin and in our mouths and intestines.
contains unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes.
contain a membrane-bound nucleus
* Prokaryotic cells of various shapes
* Adaptations to extreme environments
* Absorb or chemosynthesize foods
* Unique chemical characteristics
Features of Domain Archaea
* Prokaryotic cells of various shapes
* Adaptations to all environments
* Absorb, photosynthesize, or chemosynthesize food
* Unique chemical characteristics
Features of Domain Bacteria
Kingdoms within Domain Eukarya
* Algae, protozoans, slime molds, and water molds
* Complex, single-cell (sometimes filaments, colonies, or even multicellular).
* Absorb, photosynthesize, or ingest food
Features of Kingdom Protista
* Molds, mushrooms, yeasts, and ringworms
* Mostly multicellular filaments with specialized complex cells
* Absorb food
Features of Kingdom Fungi
* Certain algae, mosses, fern, conifers, and flowering plants
* Multicellular, usually with specialized tissues, containing complex cells
* Photosynthesize food
Features of Kingdom Plantae
* Sponges, worms, insects, fish, frogs, turtles, birds, and mammals
* Multicellular with specialized tissues containing complex cells
* Ingest food
Features of Kingdom Animalia
scientific names/ binomial nomenclature
universal and latin based
two-part name, first word is the genus.
Genus is always capitalized.
-second word is the species designation, written in lowercase.
-both words are italicized.
a standard series of steps used in gaining new knowledge through research.
3) Predictions and Experiments
4) Data Collection w/ Statistical Analysis
Five Steps of The Scientific Method
scientists use their sense to gather information about a phenomenon or natural event.
a tentative explanation for what was observed; it's developed through inductive reasoning and it is testable.
occurs whenever a person uses creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole.
a series of procedures designed to test a hypothesis; it utilizes deductive reasoning to make a prediction or expected outcome.
involves "if, then" logic.
The manner in which a scientist conducts an experiment is called an _________________________________________.
experimental (independent) variable
A good experimental design ensures that scientist is examining the contribution of a specific factor called the ____________________________________________________________ to the observation.
the factor being tested
the experimental variable is:
responding variable (dependent variable)
result or change that occurs due to the experimental variable.
a group that is exposed to the experimental variable.
a group that goes through all aspects of the experiment but is not exposed to the experimental variable.
If the control and test groups show the same results ____________________________________________ is not __________________________.
the results of an experiment
-should be observable and objective.
tables and graphs
two possible formats for the data from an experiment.
data are analyzed using _____________________________
measures of variation
A measure used to describe the distribution of data
how far off the average of the data is.
probably value (p) is:
>> Less than 5% is acceptable (p > 0.05)
>> The lower the p value, the greater the confidence in results.
>> Not due to chance alone.
* the data are interpreted to determine whether the hypothesis is supported or not.
- if prediction happens, hypothesis is supported
- if not, hypothesis is rejected
* Finding are reported in scientific journals
* Peers review the findings
* Other scientists then attempt to duplicate or dismiss the published findings
- concepts that join together two or more well-supported and related hypotheses.
- supported by broad range of observations, experiments, and data.
Concept: all organisms are composed of cells, and new cells come only from pre-existing cells.
Concept: the internal environment of an organism stays relatively constant - within a range that's protective to life.
theory of evolution
Concept: all living organisms have a common ancestor, but each is adapted to particular way of life.
scientific principle/ law
-widely accepted set of theories
- no serious challenges to validity
a systematic way of acquiring knowledge about the natural world.
the application of scientific knowledge to the interests of humans.
refers to changes in the normal cycles of the Earth's climate that may be attributed to human activity.
-the single greatest challenge facing science and society.
chemical cycling/ carbon
Climate change is primarily due an imbalance in the ________________________________ of the element ___________________.
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
the total number and relative abundance of species, the variability of there genes and the ecosystems in which they live.
the death of the last member of a species or larger classification category.
400 species/ day
Estimates of _____________________________________ lost due to human activities.
tropical rainforests and coral reefs
-these ecosystems are home to many organisms
-both are threatened by human activities
canopy of the tropical rainforest
supports orchids, insects, and monkeys, among other organisms.
provide habitats for jellyfish, sponges, crabs, lobsters, sear turtles, moray eels, and fishes.
* raw materials
Humans depend upon healthy ecosystems for:
* worsened flooding
* ruined farmland
Draining the wetlands of Mississippi and Ohio Rivers did what?
* killed species
* decreased availability of lumber
Destruction of South American rain forests did what?
* H5N1, H7N9, H1N1
Examples of emerging diseases
insects or animals
mutating and changing hosts
Emerging diseases come from:
-New or increased exposure to ________________________.
-Changes in ________________________.
- Use of ____________________________ (Legionnaire's disease)
- Pathogens _____________________ and _____________________ hosts (avian flu).
causes of climate change
Human activity (burning fossil fuels, deforestation, driving cars, etc.)
Increase in CO2 causes temperature increases, called _________________________________________.
-Produced by greenhouse effect
- It is changing Earth's ecosystem.
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