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Psychology Quizzes 2
Terms in this set (169)
Developmental psychology is defined as
the branch of psychology that systematically focuses on the physical, cognitive, and social changes that occur throughout the human life span.
An infant's tendency to automatically grasp objects placed in his or her hands best illustrates
a reflex response.
With repeated presentations of a bright red toy, 2-month-old Anita began to respond with less visual attention to the toy. Her decreasing responsiveness best illustrates
One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is
Which of the following is NOT a major issue in developmental psychology?
predictability and unpredictability
Just after birth, the cries of newborns typically bear the intonation of
their mother's native language.
Which of the following is a major issue in developmental psychology?
continuity and stages
stability and change
nature and nurture
Mr. Hersch triggered a rooting reflex in his infant son by touching him on the
Who of the following is most likely to enjoy an enduring marriage?
Zach, who smiled all the time as a child
Dr. Birkin's major research interest is the development of motor skills in children. It is most likely that Dr. Birkin is a ________ psychologist.
If a pregnant woman experiences extreme stress, the stress hormones flooding her body may threaten survival of the fetus and trigger a premature birth. In this situation, the mother's stress hormones are most clearly
Newborns have been observed to show the greatest visual interest in a
Psychologists who view the developmental process as a sequence of distinct stages generally believe that ________ is (are) the same for everyone.
the order but not the timing of the stages
One of the three major concerns of developmental psychology involves a focus on
continuity and stages.
Human females begin forming all the eggs they will ever have during
In the nature and nurture issue in developmental psychology, which of the following is an example of nature?
the genetics you inherited from both parents
The fetus is the
developing organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
Cell division and differentiation begin during the ________ stage of prenatal development.
Madison drank contaminated water, which contained toxic molecules that blocked the expression of some of her genes. As a result, she is now highly allergic to certain foods. This best illustrates the impact of
Dr. Smith has devoted his career to investigating the influence of genetic and environmental factors on developmental processes. Which major issue in developmental psychology is he most interested in?
nature and nurture
Elvira continued to smoke when she was pregnant with Darcy. As an infant, Darcy's ability to handle stress was weakened. This best illustrates the impact of
A belief that adult personality is completely determined in early childhood would be most relevant to the issue of
stability and change.
Mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of
continuity and stages.
According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage.
A critical period is an optimal period during which
exposure to certain experiences is needed for normal development.
Poor communication among brain regions that normally work together to enable one to take another's viewpoint is most clearly linked with
autism spectrum disorder.
Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they
impose rules and expect obedience.
For many animals, attachments based on contact and ________ need to form during a critical period.
Five-year-old Kevin can't remember any events from a family vacation in Hawaii when he was 2-1/2 years old. This best illustrates
The McDougals use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the McDougals as ________ parents.
The labels "easy" and "difficult" are used to refer to differences among infants in
The first time that 4-year-old Sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was simply a large whistle. Sarah's initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of
Which of the following is the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with
Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be
To assess attachment differences among infants, Mary Ainsworth placed them in a laboratory setting called a
Thomas was badly neglected as a child but has become a well-adjusted adult. This demonstrates that Thomas is
Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers?
When 10-year-old children repeatedly practice the precise motor skills involved in texting, the cortical areas directly controlling these motor skills are likely to develop more complex
Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child
develops through a series of stages.
Marlys is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistently satisfies the needs of Sara, her infant daughter. According to Erikson, Sara is likely to
form a lifelong attitude of basic trust toward the world.
Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aid box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friend's false belief about the contents of the box. This best illustrates that the children had developed a
theory of mind.
In the strange situation experiment, toddlers with an anxious attachment to their mothers were most likely to
cling to their mothers and ignore their new surroundings.
According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
the difficulty of perceiving things from another person's point of view.
Unrestraining is to ________ as uninvolved is to ________.
Infants in a strange situation who appear not to notice or care about their mother's departure or return show signs of
From ages 3 to 6, the brain's neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the
Terrance is in high school and needs to take an advanced science course this year. He has chosen chemistry. His parents aren't surprised that chemistry is introduced to Terrance now because when children enter the ________, they are able to engage in abstract thinking, can consider hypothetical propositions, and can deduce consequences.
formal operational stage
If warmly supportive parents are especially likely to have children with high self-esteem, this most clearly indicates that
warmly supportive parenting and children's self-esteem are correlated.
The sense of who we are makes up our
The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing, is called
The "we" aspect of our self-concept that comes from our group membership is our
According to Erikson, teens who suffer role confusion have not yet
solidified a sense of identity.
Critics have noted that Kohlberg's ________ level of moral reasoning is culturally limited, appearing mostly among people who prize individualism.
According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves
affirmation of self-defined ethical principles.
The corrupt behavior of many ordinary people who served as Nazi concentration camp guards best illustrates that immorality often results from
Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for
Laboratory games reveal that people's desire to punish wrongdoing is driven mostly by automatic emotional reactions rather than by deliberate conscious calculations that punishment will deter crime. This most clearly supports the ________ perspective on morality.
The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.
Critics have noted that Kohlberg's theory of moral development is biased against ________ societies.
Young teens are not fully equipped for curbing risky behavior or making long-term plans because of the incomplete maturation of their
Which of the following is true of adolescence in contemporary industrialized societies, as compared with previous centuries?
It begins earlier in life and ends later in life.
Stephanie, who is 17 years old, has high-quality relationships with both family members and friends. Regarding her adolescent romantic relationships, it is likely that Stephanie will
experience a supportive romantic relationship during adolescence.
Mallory, a single 23-year-old, has moved back into his parents' house after graduating from college so that he can afford to pursue a full-time graduate school program in business administration. His situation best illustrates a life phase called
During late adolescence people show a(n) ________ in agreeableness and a(n) ________ in emotional stability.
Juanita suffers from a painful back condition. Smoking marijuana would reduce her pain, but she thinks it would be wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Juanita is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ level of morality.
Adolescence is typically a time of
diminishing parental influence and growing peer influence.
Adolescents begin to use abstract reasoning skills when they achieve the intellectual summit that Piaget called
Adolescence extends from
the beginnings of sexual maturity to independence.
Regis thinks it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because a person might get punished for doing so. He is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ stage of morality.
Claims that adult personality traits are completely determined by childhood experiences are most clearly disputed by the ________ perspective.
According to Erikson, trust is to infancy as identity is to
Young adolescents often find it difficult to curb overwhelming emotions of anger, anxiety, or pleasurable excitement because frontal lobe maturation lags behind the development of the
By gradually sharing increasingly intimate information about their lives, Quince and Juanita developed a satisfying and committed romantic relationship. This best illustrates the value of
When asked to recall the one or two most important events over the last half-century, older adults tend to name events that occurred when they were in their
teens or twenties.
Compared with teens and young adults, older adults have ________ friendships and experience ________ attachment anxiety.
Marie feels socially useful in her career as a financial investment adviser. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Marie experiences a sense of
Researchers studied the effects of exercise on the physical health of more than 5000 residents in one locale throughout their middle and late adulthoods. The research best illustrates
a longitudinal study.
Sedentary older adults randomly assigned to aerobic exercise programs exhibit
reduced risk of significant cognitive decline.
The aging brain partly compensates for a loss of brain cells by recruiting and reorganizing existing neural networks. This best illustrates
Researchers have discovered that the midlife transition between early and middle adulthood is characterized by unusually high levels of
none of these feelings or events.
Which of the following people is more likely to experience tip-of-the-tongue forgetting?
Margaret, who is 60 years old
Jack and Jill have been married for 20 years. Which of the following is NOT likely to be associated with their marriage?
decreased mental health
When children grow up and leave home, parents most frequently report feeling
A cross-sectional study is one in which
different age groups are tested at the same time.
Research has found that one indicator of marital success is the
ratio of their positive to negative interactions with each other.
Juanita is 75 years old and hasn't seen her granddaughter, Stephanie, in a few months. When Stephanie came to visit, Juanita asked her "Are you getting fat?" This may be related to
frontal lobe atrophy.
As people progress into late adulthood, their positive feelings tend to ________ and negative feelings tend to ________.
Scott is 40 years old and works as an advertising consultant. He is married with two children. He is in the ________ years.
Research has found that a long marriage is a predictor of all of the following EXCEPT
decreased physical health.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding brain-training programs?
They improve everyday cognitive performance.
Lewis is a 70-year-old retired college professor. In contrast to when he was 30, he now probably
does not hear as well.
Erik Erikson suggested that a major task of adulthood was to develop a sense of contributing to the world by being productive. According to Erikson, those who do this effectively demonstrate
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n)
Just after they taste a sweet liquid, mice are injected with a drug that produces an immune response. Later, the taste of the sweet liquid by itself triggers an immune response. This best illustrates
Psychologists define learning as the process of
acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.
A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a
Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because
so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned.
A child's learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n)
The sea slug Aplysia will withdraw its gills if it is squirted with water. If the squirts continue, as they do in nature, the withdrawal response will diminish. But if the sea slug receives an electric shock after being squirted, the withdrawal of the gills will grow stronger. This is an example of
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus signals the impending occurrence of
an unconditioned stimulus.
Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
sweating in hot weather
Respondent behavior is defined as a(n) ________ response to some stimulus.
Which of the following is NOT a process of classical conditioning that Pavlov explored?
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
Voluntary behaviors that produce consequences are called
After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of
In classical conditioning a stimulus is any event or situation that
evokes a response.
Who showed us how a process such as learning could be studied objectively?
A dog salivates to the sound of a tone because the tone has regularly been associated with the delivery of food. In this case, the tone is called a(n)
Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate
After a scary biking accident, Alex extinguished his conditioned fear of bikes by cycling on a safe biking trail every day for a week. The reappearance of his previously extinguished fear when he rode a bike on the same trail two weeks later best illustrates
In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)
The type of learning in which one comes to associate two stimuli and thereby anticipate events is called
The "psychic secretions" that Pavlov initially considered an annoyance were
Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate when stimulated on other body parts. This best illustrates
When Jake is with his girlfriend, he feels so in love, happy, and content. Because he and his girlfriend text and talk on the phone frequently throughout the day, Jake has set up a special ring tone for his girlfriend. Now, when he hears the ring tone, he feels happy and content. Which of the following is the unconditioned stimulus in this example?
At one time Jimmy was scared of dogs because he was bitten by one. With subsequent repeated exposure to tame dogs in safe settings, however, his fear of dogs has gradually faded. Jimmy's diminishing fear of dogs best illustrates
The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by
To quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use
immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers.
B. F. Skinner is most closely associated with
If bears find insects after they move decaying logs, they more frequently move decaying logs. This most clearly indicates that finding insects is a
In explaining serious childhood misbehavior, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized
faulty child-raising practices.
A type of learning in which behavior is diminished if followed by a punisher is called
Most psychologists would advise parents who want to change a child's bad behavior to make greater use of
reinforcement than of punishment.
Taking away the driver's license of a reckless teen driver is intended to serve as a
Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule.
Alex was paid $100 for eight hours of work. The money was a(n)
secondary (conditioned) reinforcer.
A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n)
A learned association between behaviors and resulting events is central to
Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of
Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
Asking potential partners for a date is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ________ reinforcement.
Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
Brandon is trying to train his dog to sit and roll over. He will be most successful if he rewards his dog based on
Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of
Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of
Administering an aversive stimulus following an operant response is
Voluntary behaviors that become more frequent when followed by reinforcers are called
Myron quit gambling after he lost more than one thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of
Stacey has a migraine headache and takes medicine to relieve the pain. In this case, the medicine is a
Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have seen all the Spiderman movies. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try jumping across to the next roof. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?
After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snout. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the impact of
According to some researchers, a televised fistfight may lead viewers to mentally simulate fistfighting thanks to the activation of
The brain's capacity to simulate and vicariously experience the observed postures and facial expressions of others most clearly contributes to the development of a child's
theory of mind.
Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.
Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased rates of violent behavior.
Generally, ________ predispose(s) organisms to learn associations that ________.
biological constraints; are naturally adaptive
Which of the following has helped prevent coyotes and wolves from attacking sheep?
conditioned taste aversion
Evidence that organisms most readily learn behaviors favored by natural selection best illustrates the importance of
The work of ________ has been used to restrain television violence, reduce unplanned childbearing, protect against AIDS, and promote environmental conservation.
The pioneering researcher of observational learning was
Mirror neurons are believed by some scientists to provide a biological basis for
Different groups of vervet monkeys learned to prefer either blue or pink corn. All but one of their 27 infant monkeys subsequently came to prefer the same color corn preferred by the adult monkeys in their group. This subsequent outcome best illustrated
Sandy finds it harder to frown when watching her brother smile than when seeing him frown. Scientists are currently debating whether this can be attributed to the activation of
Socially responsive toddlers who readily imitate their parents tend to become preschoolers with a strong internalized conscience. This best illustrates the impact of
Models are most effective when
their actions and words are consistent.
When Adam observed his sister being scolded after she hit another child, Adam also discontinued hitting other children. This best illustrates the impact of
Children often imitate behaviors seen on television and online videos. This best illustrates the impact of
We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are
followed by reinforcement.
The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by
Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.
Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson ________ the impact of biological constraints on classical conditioning and they ________ the impact of cognitive processes on classical conditioning.
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it is called
After watching violent cartoons, Jeremy and Julie engaged in the very same violence they saw on TV, such as flying karate kicks. This best illustrates that one of the factors contributing to the violence-viewing effect is
It has been suggested that ________ are activated when a monkey moves a peanut into its own mouth and when a monkey simply observes other monkeys move a peanut into their mouths.
Experimental studies have shown that media violence viewing can cause aggression. This is called
the violence-viewing effect.
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