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Human Growth and Development
Terms in this set (107)
Defined as systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur between conception and death. These systematic changes occur in three broad areas: physical development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development.
Certain changes in abilities or behaviors can be separated from others which argues for stages of development (language development)
This is the reduction of all behavior to common elements
Because of new stages, there is change or discontinuity; it is more than Stimulus Response. The organism is involved including the use of cognition. Examples would be moral or ethical development.
At __________, infants have no sense of self. In early months this quickly changes.
By ___________, most infants show signs of self recognition; they can identify social categories they are in such as age and gender, who is like me an dhow is not like me, they inhibit various temperaments.
The _______'s self concept is very concrete and physical. By 8, or so, then can describe inner qualities.
By _____________, self concepts become more abstract and psychological. Stabilization of self concept attributes continues.
John Locke's view that children begin as a blank slate.
Important for memory, optimal cognitive functioning, emotional balance and control
Affects feelings, behaving, thinking; critical for emotional and cognitive processes; vital to sleep and anxiety control.
Important for emotional wellness, motivation, pleasurable feelings
Helps reduce anxiety, promotes relaxation and sleep.
Identified stages of growth-each one requiring completion of the last one for success and happiness
Developmental tasks arise from physical maturation, influences from culture and society, and desires and values of the person
Developmental tasks are the skills, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes that an individual ahs to acquire through physical maturation, social learning and personal effort.
John Watson, B.F. Skinner
This is a learning approach. Behaviorists believe the environment manipulates biological and psychological drives and needs resulting in development.
Learning and behavior changes are the result of rewards and punishments. A reward ids a positive reinforcing stimulus which maintains or increases a behavior. When a behavior results in the termination of a positive reinforcing stimulus or the beginning of a negative stimulus we have punishment. Such a behavior should weaken or drop out.
We grow, develop, and learn through the nature of experience-the rewards and punishments we receive.
Law of effect
Edward Thorndike formulated this law which states that when a stimulus-response connection is followed by a reward, that connection is strengthened. In other words a behavior's consequences determine the probability of its being repeated.
Once a response has been conditioned, stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus are also likely to elicit the conditioned response.
Are areas of bodily excitation such as the mouth, anus, and genitals.
Rejecting from conscious though the impulse or idea that provokes anxiety
Avoiding the conflict within oneself by ascribing the ideas or motives to someone else.
Expressing a motive or impulse in a way that is directly opposite what was originally intended.
Providing a reason for a behavior and thereby concealing the true motive or reason for the behavior.
Substituting a different object or goal for the impulse or motive that is being expressed
Identifying through fantasy the expression of some impulse or motive
Retreating to earlier or more primitive forms of behavior
Refusing to see something that is a fact or true in reality.
May be viewed as a positive defense mechanism wherein anxiety or sexual tension or energy is channeled into socially acceptable activities such as work.
Trust vs mistrust
Birth to 1 1/2 year
Infant develops trust if basic needs are ment.
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
1 1/2 to 3
Infant asserts self; develops independence if allowed.
Initiative vs. guilt
3 to 6
Children meet challenges; assume responsibility; identify rights of others.
Industry vs. inferiority
6 to 11
Children master social and academic skills or feel inferior
Identity vs role confusion
Individual establishes social and vocational roles and identities or is confused about adult roles.
Intimacy vs. isolation
Young adult intimate relationships or fears giving up independence and becoming lonely and isolated
Generativity vs. stagnation
Middle aged adults desire to produce something of value, and contribute to society.
Integrity vs. despair
Older adults view life as meaningful and positive or with regrets. Erikson viewed life as in constant change; the social context is important in the development of personality.
Modifying the relevant environmental events so they can be incorporated into the individual's existing structure.
Modifying the organization of the individual in response to environmental events
Is another word for a mental structure that processes information, perceptions, and experiences.
Birth to 2
The child differentiates self from objects; can think of an object not actually present; seeks stimulation
2 to 7
Language development is occurring; child is egocentric; has difficulty taking another's point of view; classifies objects by one feature.
7 to 11
Begins logical operations; can order objects; understands conservation
11 to 15
Moves toward abstract thinking; can test hypotheses; logical problem solving can occur.
A punishment and obedience orientation exists.
An instrumental and hedonistic orientation prevails (obtaining rewards)
Interpersonal acceptance orientation prevails; maintaining good relations, approval of others
A law and order orientation exists; conformity to legitimate authorities
Social contracts and utilitarian orientation exists; most values and rules are relative
A self chosen principled orientation prevails; universal ethical principles apply
Wrote: The Seasons of a Man's Life
HE identified three major transitions/items occurring between four major eras of life:
early adult transition
mid life transition
late adult transition
Early adult transition
Mid life transition
Late adult transition
In adulthood, the individual copes with three sets of developmental tasks:
Build, modify, and enhance life structure
Form and modify single components of the life structure such as: life dream, occupation, love marriage, family relationships, mentor, and forming mutual relationships
Tasks to become more individuated
Took an ecological approach to the study of human development, i.e., he believed it was important to look at all levels and systems impacting a person.
For example: a troubled adolescent is a part of several systems such as family, school, peers, community, etc. We must be sensitive to influences of all of these systems.
Developed a scheme for intellectual development and ethical development. He identified three general categories and nine positions:
Dualism- authorities know, there are true authorities adn wrong authorities, good authorities may know but may not know everything yet.
Relativism is discovered- there may not be right or wrong answers; uncertainty may be ok, all knowledge may be relative, in an uncertain world, I'll have to make decisions
c. in an uncertain world, I'll have to make decisions
Commitment in relativism- initial commitment, several commitments and balancing them, commitments evolve, and they may be contradictory
There are true authorities and wrong authorities
Good authorities may know but may not know everything yet
Relativism is discovered
There may not be right or wrong answers; uncertainty may be ok
All knowledge may be relative
In an uncertain world, I'll have to make decisions
Commitment in Relativism
Several commitments and balancing them
Commitments evolve, and they may be contradictory
Was one of the first to speak out against the masculine bias found in psychoanalytic theory.
Jean Baker Miller
Indicated that a large part of women's lives has been spent helping others develop emotionally, intellectually, and socially. This caretaking is a central concept differentiating the development of women from men.
_________ and others affiliated with the Stone Center, Wellesley College, presented a developmental theory of women in 1991 which was referred to as self in relation theory. The principal components of this theory included:
people grow toward relationships throughout life
mature functioning is characterized by mutuality and deepening connections
psychological growth is characterized by involvement in complex and diversified relational networks.
mutual empathy and empowerment are at the core of positive relationships
growth fostering relationships require engagements to be authentic
growth fostering relationships stimulate growth and change in all people
goals of development are characterized by an increasing ability to name and resist disconnections, sources of oppression, and obstacles to mutual relationships.
___________ in The Dance of Intimacy, believed women needed to re-evaluate their intimate relationships which may not be working, and choose a healthier balance between other oriented and self absorption. Competent relationships allow for each person to be appreciated and enhanced, and the woman should show strength, independence and assertiveness.
In the Mismeasure of Woman, ___________ indicated that women are judged and mismeasured by their fit into a male world. In fact, both genders are more alike than different but they are perceived as different because of the roles they have been assigned. Society also pathologizes women.
_______________, In A Different Voice and other writings, believed that women view relationships and experience of relationships differently than men do.
She wrote Passages: Predictable Crises of Adult Life in 1976.
Passages are transitional periods between life stages and are different for most individuals. These passages also provide opportunities for growth-through the crises we face in making constructive changes between life stages.
Some research indicates that over 90 percent of the US population has a belief in a divine power or force greater than oneself. Spirituality is viewed more broadly than belief in a religion. In any case, spirituality may directly influence clients in their view of self, relationships, worldview, as well as nature and cause of perceived problems. For many individuals, their spirituality is a key component in their definition of being whole and of wellness. Counselors must be willing and able to address and identify issues of spirituality important to the client's situation. they may have to acquire knowledge and the language to communicate effectively with clients who have a wide variety of spirituality issues and beliefs. Essentially, this process may require counselors to examine their own spirituality
A learned developmental process beginning in infancy and proceeding to adulthood through varying levels of development. An emotionally intelligent person is self motivated, empathic, grasps social signals and nonverbal messages, and develops strong interpersonal abilities.
This is the concept that implies nearness or proximity. For example, in selecting a partner, one is most likely to become involved with someone who lives nearby.
Stress may occur as an individual encounters various transitional periods/stages. Although Levinson believes that most men experience midlife crisis, many writers do not. Both men and women may experience a painful self evaluation process but not at a crisis level.
A breakdown in cognitive, emotional or behavioral functioning. The dysfunction is unexpected in its cultural context and associated with personal distress or substantial impairment in functioning.
The scientific study of psychological disorders
How man (what percent) of the population has the disorder
How many new cases occur within a given time frame such as a year
The anticipated course of a disorder
What causes a disorder, i.e., why does it begin? Biological, psychological and social dimensions are involved
There may be multiple paths to a given outcome. For example, depression may be caused by physical injury, loss of a loved one, or substance abuse
Means that an individual has two or more disorders at the same time.
occurs when defense mechanisms are used to cope with stressors. Mechanisms leading to optimal adaptation include anticipation, humor and sublimation. At the other extreme, failure to regulate stress may lead to a break with reality resulting in delusional projection or psychotic distortion.
This model assumes that a disorder is caused by one factor such as a chemical imbalance.
Research does not support this linear model.
These models assume that a disorder is caused by the interaction of several factors and dimensions.
The context of the individual is important and includes the biology and behavior of the individual as well as cognitive, emotional, social, and cultural dimensions.
The individual perceives the symptoms or traits as unacceptable and undesirable
The individual perceives the symptoms or traits as acceptable
Rorschach, Thematic Apperception Test, Incomplete Sentences Blank
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), California Psychological Inventory
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - IV
These instruments measure brain dysfunctions and measure such abilities as language expression, attention and concentration, memory, motor skills, and perceptual abilities
Continuum of care
Many individuals in treatment move through a ___________. The most restrictive environment is inpatient hospitalization followed by partial or day hospital care, followed by group home or residential care. Less restrictive possibilities include intensive outpatient programs, home health care, and outpatient services.
Is now intellectual disability with level of disability determined by new measures, not IQ
now include social communication disorder and two categories are language disorder and speech disorder
Autism and Asperger's disorder
now include social communication disorder and two categories are language disorder and speech disorder
becomes childhood onsent fluency disorder
is viewed as a spectrum and the five subtypes are no longer used
now include the diagnostic categories of agoraphobia and panic disorder
now includes four rather than three distinct diagnostic clusters
include dementia and delirium. Dementia is conceptualized as a major neurocognitive disorder.
Do not contain any disorders related to mania.
Bereavement has been excluded as part of a major depressive episode. Physical causes for depression must always be considered. The most common and effective treatment for depressive disorders include medication and psychotherapy. The two most effective psychotherapeutic interventions appear to be cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy.
Bipolar and related disorders
Mania and hypomania criteria focus on changes in energy and activity. Depression and anxiety are often viewed as comorbid with bipolar and related disorders.
Mood stabilizing medication and psychotherapy are the typical recommended treatments. Specifically, psychoeducation, family focused therapy, CBT, and interpersonal therapy have been shown to be effective.
Fear and anxiety are part of anxiety disorders as well as a variety of physiological symptoms such as heart palpitations, sweating, and shortness of breath. Comorbidity with depressive disorders is common although anxiety is often characterized by anxious anticipation and fear unlike depressive disorder. Anxiety disorders often have an early age onset and suicide risk assessment.
Obsessive compulsive and related disorders
Feature obsessive preoccupation and engagement in repetitive behaviors. Previously classified in the anxiety disorders category, the principal feature of these disorders is not anxiety. Comorbidity with other diagnoses is not uncommon and these include depressive and anxiety disorders, hypochondriasis, eating disorder, and ADHD, to name a few.
Trauma and stressor related disorders
Traumatic and stressful events may threaten an individual's physical, social, emotional, cognitive or spiritual well being. These events include sexual or physical assault, combat, torture, disasters, severe car accidents, child abuse and life threatening illnesses. These events can occur once or be re-occurring and overwhelm a person's coping ability.
A wide variety of psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches may be indicated for disorders in this broad category. Variables such as age of the person form child to adult, nature of and duration of traumatic event, and the individual's coping skills and support, will help determine the appropriate psychotherapeutic approach that could be implemented.
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Some of the characteristics of these disorders include impulse control; conduct disorders are aggressive or self destructive behaviors, destruction of property, conflict with authority figures, and disregard for norms and outbursts of anger not proportionate to the situation. All disorders listed her include the common characteristic of problems with emotional or behavioral regulation and these disorders typically appear first in childhood or adolescence. There is high comorbidity with substance use disorders, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders.
Feeding and eating disorders
Sleep wake disorders
Restless legs syndrome
Female orgasmic disorder
These disorders represent a disconnection between things usually connected. These disconnections signify a disruption in the normal integration of consciousness, identity, memory, body representation, motor control and behavior. ________ are usually associated with trauma and can occur at any age. Certain medical conditions, seizures, drug use, and brain injuries may result in dissociative symptoms.
The five types of dissociation
These disorders are characterized by persistent maladaptive patterns of behavior, affect, cognition and interpersonal functioning. These patterns deviate from one's culture and usually begin before adulthood. Furthermore, these traits have an impact on an individual's life and ability to function in home, school or work. There is a tendency to see these maladaptive patterns as persistent throughout life thus making treatment difficult. Ten distinct types of personality disorder are identified as: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive and dependent.
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