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252 terms

Surgical Technology Examination Book

Fundamental knowledge
STUDY
PLAY
Adnexa refers to
accessory organs
A drop is denoted by the abbreviation
gt
The abbreviation ung refers to
ointment
Proximal is a term that indicates a point
nearer to the body
Adduction means
movement toward median plane
Ischemic can be defined as
a decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ
A cystocele is
a herniation of the urinary bladder
Nulli is a prefix that means
none
False is indicated by the prefix
pseudo
Tiny red or purple spots on the skin appearing as a result of a small hemorrhage within the dermal or submucsosal layers are called ?
Petechiae
Kerato refers to
horny (cornea of the eye)
the suffix lysis means
breaking down
The left eye is indicated by the following letters
OS
Tissue death is called
necrosis
The secretion of excessive sweat is also known as
diaphoresis
Which radiographic procedure has the ability to make images in multiple planes
MRI
The absence of a normal body opening,duct,or canal is called
atresia
Epistaxis can be defined as
bleeding from the nose
Blood gas analysis is called
ABG
A ganglion is a
collection of nerve ending
The lungs are covered in a serous membranous sac called the
visceral pleura
The passageway for foods and liquids into the digestive system, and for air into the respiratory system,is the
pharynx
the vocal cords are located in the
larynx
The function of the trachea is to
conduct air to and from the lungs
The nasal cavity is divided into two portions by the
septum
The bones of the palm of the hand are referred to as
matacarpals
The muscles important in respiration are
intercostal
The thick,fan-shaped muscle that lies on the anterior chest is the
pectoralis major
The triangular muscle of the shoulder that abducts the arm is the
deltoid
Which of the abdominal muscles orginates at the pubic bone and ends in the ribs?
rectus abdominis
One of the principal muscles of the pelvic floor is the
levator ani
The gastrocnemius is the chief muscle of the
calf of the leg
A connective tissue band that holds bones together is called
ligament
The two bones that form the side walls and roof of the cranium are the
parietal bones
the sternocleidomastoid muscle is located
along the side of the neck
The medial bone of the forearm , which is located on the small-finger side of the hand is called
ulna
The bone that is shaped like a butterfly and forms the anterior portion of the base of the cranium is the
sphenoid
The bone that forms the posterior portion of the skull is the
occipital
The lower jawbone is the
mandible
The bone located in the neck between the mandible and the larynx, which supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles ,is the
hyoid bone
The audult vertebral column has
26 bones
How many cervical vertebrae are there ?
7
The bone in the axial skeleton that does not articulate with any other bone is the
hyoid
The number of pairs of ribs is
12
A slender,rodlike bone that is located at the base of the neck and runs horizontally is the
clavicle
The nucleus pulposus is the
cushioning mass within an interverebrae disk
The upper ,flaring portion of hipbone is the
ilium
A large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes is the
foramen magnum
The larger,weight-bearing bone of the lower leg is the
tibia
The bone that fits into the acetabulum,forming a joint, is the
femur
Another name for the kneecap is
patella
The membranes that line closed cavities within the body are called
serous membranes
The longest bone in the body is the
femur
A rounded protubrance found at a point of articulation with another bone is called
condyle
An infection of the bone is
osteomyelitis
The epiphyses are the
end of long bones
Oil gland of the skin are called
sebaceous
The periosteum is
the membrane that covers bone
A transparent structure that permits the eye to focus rays to form an image on the retina is the
lens
The purpose of the iris is to
regulate the amount of light entering the eye
The structure that is seen from the outside as the colored portion of the eye is the
iris
The nerve that carries visual impulses to the brain is the
optic nerve
The white outer layer of the eyeball is the
sclera
A jelly-like substance in the eye's posterior cavity is called
vitreous humor
The structure that connects the middle ear and the throat, allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely is the
eustachian tube
The conjunctiva is the ?
covering of the anterior globe except the cornea
The number of pairs of spinal nerves is ?
31
The great sensory nerve of the face and head is the
trigeminal
The cranial nerve that contains special sense fibers for hearing as well as for balance is
VIII
The part of the brain responsible for maintenance of balance and muscle tone,as well as coordination of voluntary muscle, is the
cerebellum
The frontal,temporal,,parietal, and occipital lobes are divisions of the
cerebrum
The area of the brain that controls the respiratory center is the
medulla oblongata
The largest part of the brain is the
cerebrum
The outer most covering of the brain and spinal cord is the
dura matter
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates freely in the
subarachnoid space
The brain contains four fluid-filled spaces called the
ventricles
Which of the following structures transmits sound vibrations to the inner ear?
tympanic membrane
The winding,cone-shaped tube of the inner ear is
cochlea
Which of the following is not an auditory ossicle
cochelea
Cross-matching of blood
determines suitability of donor by mixing donor's RBC's with recipient serum
The highly specialized blood cell whose function is oxygen transportation is
red blood cell
A differential count provides an estimate of
the percentage of each type of white cell
Mixing of incompatible may result in
agglutination
Platelets are essential for
coagulation of blood
In the normal adult,the average number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter of circulating blood is
5000-10,000
A large superficial vein in the lower extremity,which begins in the foot and extends up the medial side of the leg,the knee and the thigh, is called the
greater saphenous
The vein in the bend of the elbow that is commonly used as a site for venipuncture is the
median cubital vein
The artery at the back of the knee is the
popliteal
The superior and inferior mesenteric arteries supply the
intestines
The vein that drains the veins of the chest wall and empties into the superior vena cava is the
azygos
The veins of the head and neck are drained by the
jugular veins
Which arteries supply the heart
coronary
The atrioventricular (A-V) node causes
at the base of the brain
Why would an aspirated foreign body be more likely to enter the right bronchus rather than the left bronchus?
the right bronchus is more vertical shorter,and wider than the left
The spleen filters
blood
Circulation that is established through an anastomosis between two vessels supplying or draining two adjacent structures is called
collateral circulation
Which artery supplies the head and neck?
carotid
The serous membrane that covers the heart is the
Pericardium
The circle of willis is located
at the base of the brain
The branch of the external iliac artery that is located in the thigh is called the
femoral artery
The descending aorta terminates at the level of the fourth limbar verebra, dividing into
two common iliac arteries
The contractions of the heart are synchronized and regulated by the pacemaker of the heart,called the
sinoatrial node
Tiny blood vessels that permeate and nourish tissue are called
capillaries
The wall or partition dividing the heart into right and left sides is called the
septum
The heart valve that close at the time the right ventricle begins pumping,preventing blood from returning to the right atrim,is the
tricuspid
The inner lining of the heart ,composed of smooth, delicate membrane, is called the
endocardium
The spleen is located
in the left hypochondriac region
parts of the lymphatic system
palatine tonsil, submandibular lymph nodes, cervical lymph nodes, axillary lymph nodes, mammary lymph node, iliac lymph nodes, inguinal lymph nodes, intestinal lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus gland, spleen
The S-shaped bend in the lower colon is called the
sigmoid
The reabsorption of water and electrolytes is the main function of the
large intestine
The terminal portion of the large intestine is the
anal canal
Which structure lies retroperitoneally
kidney
The first portion of the large intestine is the
cecum
The appendix is attached to the
Cecum
The primary function of the gallbladder is
storage of bile
when the gallbladder contracts, bile is ejected into the
duodenum
The area in the duodenum where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct empty is called
ampulla of vater
Which structure is also known as the "fatty" apron
greater omentum
The common bile duct is the union of the
cystic duct and hepatic duct
The yellow tinge in the skin symptomic of obstructive jaundice is caused by the accumulation of what substance in the blood and tissue
bilirubin
The head of the pancreas is located ?
in the curve of the duodenum
The sphincter at the junction of the small and large intestines is the
ileocecal sphincter
The portion of the small intestine that receives secretion from the pancreas and the liver is the
duodenum
The region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum is the ?
pylorus
The mesentery is
A double-layered peritoneal structure shaped like a fan
large central portion of the stomach is called the
body
The muscle serving as a valve to prevent regurgitation of food from the intestine back into the stomach is known as the
pyloric sphincter
The digestive passageway that begins at the pharynx and terminates in the stomach is the
esophagus
The point at which the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm is called the
hiatus
Adenoids are also called
pharyngeal tonsils
The function of the molar teeth is to
crush and grind food
Mumps occur in the
parotid glands
The salivary glands located under the tongue are the
sublingual
The liver has
two lobes
The glomerulus is a
cluster of capillaries
The tubes or cuplike extensions that project from the renal pelvis are called
calyces
Urine is transported along the ureters to the bladder by
peristaltic waves
The smooth, trangular area at the bottom of the bladder that contains three ening is called the
trigone
The kidneys are positioned
retroperitoneally
The kidney structure that filters blood , returns useful ubstances to blood , and removes substances from blood that are not needed is the
nephron
Blood is supplied to the kidney by means of the renal artery, which arises from the
abdominal aorta
The indentation in kidney through which all structures must pass as they enter or leave the kidney is the
hilus
The outer layer of the kidney is known as the
cortex
The portion of the male urethra that passes through the pelvic floor is called the
membranous portion
A lack of voluntary control over micturition is called
incontinence
Urine empties from the bladder through a tube called ?
Urethra
Fertilization occurs in the ?
fallopian tubes
The perineum is ?
the area between the vagina and the anus
The small, sensitive structure of the female homologous to the male penis is the ?
clitoris
ova are swept into the fallopian tube by small, fringelike extensions on the distal ends of the tubes called?
fimbriae
The inner lining of the uterus is called the ?
endometrium
The ligament that attaches the ovaries to the pelvic wall is the ?
suspensory
The supporting structure of the male reproductive system is the ?
spermatic cord
The loose skin covering the glans penis like a sheath is called ?
prepuce
The distal end of the penis is slightly enlarged and is called ?
glans penis
In a male, the structure surrounding the entrance to the urethra just below the urinary bladder is ?
the prostate gland
Which struture is not a portion of the male urethra?
vas
This structure stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation ?
vas deferens
The long, coilded tube in which sperm mature is the ?
epididymis
The English surgeon who began the age of chemical control of the atmosphere was ?
Lister
Passage of fluild through a cell membrane is called?
osmosis
Oxygen-dependent bacteria are said to be
aerobic
The destruction of bacteria by white cells during the imflammatory process is called
phagocytosis
acteriostatic means?
to inhibit growth of microorganisms
Staphylococcus aureus would most likely be transmitted by ?
nose and mouth
Microbial death occurs when an organism is ?
no longer capable of reproduction
What immune protection is available to the fetus?
natural passive
The clinical syndrome characterized by microbial invasion of the bloodstream is ?
septicemia
A toxiod is ?
an inactivated toxin
Inflammatory exudate that is thick and yellow is termed ?
suppurative
The body's first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens is ?
kin and mucous membrane linings
Rodlike shaped bacteria are identified microscopically as?
bacilli
A procedure used to remove damaged tissue that provides growth conditions for pathogens is called ?
debriement
Herpes simplex is commonly called?
cold sore
All of the following descriptors refer to the inflammatory process EXCEPT?
vasoconstriction
Clostridium tetani causes
lockjaw
A laboratory procedure useful in classifying bacteria using a staining procedure is ?
Gram stain
A fulminating infection arising from necrotic tissue and spreading rapid is ?
gas gangrene
Which bacteria is commonly found in soil?
Clostridium tetani
The bacteria that causes rheumatic fever
streptococcus
A severe allergic reaction possibly resulting in death is called ?
anaphylactic shock
what organism is responsible for a boil?
staphylococcus aureus
The organism most frequently found in burns is ?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
A bacteria pathogen most frequently invading damaged skin is ?
staphylococcus aureus
ch type of wound would favor the development of gas gangrene?
necrotic
Gas gangrene is caused by ?
Clostridium perfrngens
The bacteria highly resistant to sterillization and disinfection is ?
spores
A bacteria found in the instestinal tract is ?
Escherichia coli
The burn classification that is characterized by a dry , pearly white ,or charred-appearing surface is ?
third
OSHA is a government regulating agency whose aim is to ?
execute requirements designed to prevent transmission of blood-born pathogens in the work enviroment.
Inflammation is characterized by pain , redness, heat, swelling and loss of function. The redness can be attributed to ?
vasodilationbringing more blood to the area.
Removal of contaminated debris from a wound is called ?
debridement
The space aused by separation wound edges is called ?
dead space
tissue is appoximated too tightly it can cause ?
Ischemia
Tensile strength of a wound refers to ?
ability of tissue to resist rupture
The substence that unites with thrombin to form fibrin ,the basic structural material of blood clots is ?
fibrinogen
A cicatrix is ?
A scar
Keloids are ?
A raised , thickened scar
A wound that is infected or one in which there is excessive loss of tissue heals by ?
secondary intention
A CDC guideline that addresses the care of "sharps" includes all the following Except
needles should always be recaped
The type of wound healing that requires debridement is
third
promote healing , a surgical wound must have all the following requirements EXCEPT
tight sutures to create tension
Wound healing that employs a technique allowing the wound to heal from the bottom s called ?
second intention
Which body fluid is least likely to transmit HIV ?
saliva
A band of scar tissue that binds together two anatomical surfaces that are normally separate from each other is called ?
cicatix
A drug that interferes with the blood -clotting mechanism is ?
fentanyl
an mg is a measurement of ?
weight
The utiopns used intravenously replace plasma hen plasma is not available is ?
Dextran
An inch equals?
2.54 cm
How many milliliters are in ounce ?
30
One gram equals?
1000mg
A drug used to increase blood pressure is ?
epinephrine
The action an anticholineric drug is to reduce ?
secretions
The total volume in a 30cc syring is ?
1 ounce
Naloxone Narcan is an example of a /an ?
narcotic antagonist
Avitene is ?
hemostatic
An absorbable gelatin hemostatic agent that is often soaked in thrombin or epinephine solution is ?
Gelfoam
Each of the following agents must be applied using dry gloves or instruments EXCEPT?
Gelfoam
An anticoagulant n subcuteously ,intravenously , or as a flush is ?
heparin
A drug that decreases the tendency of blood platelets to clot is ?
warfarin sodium
An tibiotic used intraoperatively ?
Gentamicin
A pical antibiotic is ?
Bacitracin
Which item is used on cut edges of bone to seal off oozing of blood?
bone wax
The most common diuretic is ?
Lasix
An osmotic diuretic agent used to decrease cerebral edema and intraocular edema is ?
mannitol
A systemic agent used to control uterine hemorrhage is ?
pitocin
Steroids are used for ?
reduction of tissue inflammation and swelling
Solu-Medrol is a / an ?
anti-inflammatoory
Tubal patency may be tested by the installation of ____________ into the uterine cavity.
methylene blue
A mydriatic drug,Neo-synephrine , is used to
dilate the pupil
Immobility of the eye ,alone with lowered intra-ocular pressure is facilited by the use of
Retrobullar block
Miochol is ?
miotic
An agent that keeps the cornea moist during surgery and is used for irrigation as well is ?
BSS
An artificial plasma-volume expander is
dextran
An anticoagulant used in vascular surgery is
heparin
Heparin effects are reversed by
protamine sulfate
The universal donor blood that may be given in extreme emergencies until the patient can be typed and crossmatched is
O
Normal saline is used for laparotomy pack moistening and for intraperitoneal irrigation because it is
isotonic
Levophed
restores and maintains blood pressure
A drug used to treat metabolic acidosis is
sodium bicarbonate
The last sensation to leave the patient during general anesthesia induction is
hearing
An ultrashort acting drug useful dueing intubation to produce paralysis and also to produce muscle relaxation when used in a dilute solution
Anectine
Neuroleptoanlgesia combines
a tranquilizer and narcotic
A sedative -tranquilizer used to reduce anxiety and apprehension of the pre-op patient and as an adjunct to general anestheia to reduce the amount and concentration of other more potent agents is
Valium
An antimuscarinic
limits salivation
Anesthesia given in a combinenation of several agents to obtan optimum results is called
balanced ansthesia
A bolus is
a dose injected all at once, intravenously
A drug used to soothe and relieve anxiety is
sedative
A Bier block provides
anesthesia to a distal portion of an extremity
Which inhalation agents is used for short procedures requiring no muscle relaxation
nitrous ixide
The most frequently used barbiturate for intravenous anesthesia
pentothal
Halothane is also called
Fluothane