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Fundamental knowledge

Adnexa refers to

accessory organs

A drop is denoted by the abbreviation


The abbreviation ung refers to


Proximal is a term that indicates a point

nearer to the body

Adduction means

movement toward median plane

Ischemic can be defined as

a decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ

A cystocele is

a herniation of the urinary bladder

Nulli is a prefix that means


False is indicated by the prefix


Tiny red or purple spots on the skin appearing as a result of a small hemorrhage within the dermal or submucsosal layers are called ?


Kerato refers to

horny (cornea of the eye)

the suffix lysis means

breaking down

The left eye is indicated by the following letters


Tissue death is called


The secretion of excessive sweat is also known as


Which radiographic procedure has the ability to make images in multiple planes


The absence of a normal body opening,duct,or canal is called


Epistaxis can be defined as

bleeding from the nose

Blood gas analysis is called


A ganglion is a

collection of nerve ending

The lungs are covered in a serous membranous sac called the

visceral pleura

The passageway for foods and liquids into the digestive system, and for air into the respiratory system,is the


the vocal cords are located in the


The function of the trachea is to

conduct air to and from the lungs

The nasal cavity is divided into two portions by the


The bones of the palm of the hand are referred to as


The muscles important in respiration are


The thick,fan-shaped muscle that lies on the anterior chest is the

pectoralis major

The triangular muscle of the shoulder that abducts the arm is the


Which of the abdominal muscles orginates at the pubic bone and ends in the ribs?

rectus abdominis

One of the principal muscles of the pelvic floor is the

levator ani

The gastrocnemius is the chief muscle of the

calf of the leg

A connective tissue band that holds bones together is called


The two bones that form the side walls and roof of the cranium are the

parietal bones

the sternocleidomastoid muscle is located

along the side of the neck

The medial bone of the forearm , which is located on the small-finger side of the hand is called


The bone that is shaped like a butterfly and forms the anterior portion of the base of the cranium is the


The bone that forms the posterior portion of the skull is the


The lower jawbone is the


The bone located in the neck between the mandible and the larynx, which supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles ,is the

hyoid bone

The audult vertebral column has

26 bones

How many cervical vertebrae are there ?


The bone in the axial skeleton that does not articulate with any other bone is the


The number of pairs of ribs is


A slender,rodlike bone that is located at the base of the neck and runs horizontally is the


The nucleus pulposus is the

cushioning mass within an interverebrae disk

The upper ,flaring portion of hipbone is the


A large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes is the

foramen magnum

The larger,weight-bearing bone of the lower leg is the


The bone that fits into the acetabulum,forming a joint, is the


Another name for the kneecap is


The membranes that line closed cavities within the body are called

serous membranes

The longest bone in the body is the


A rounded protubrance found at a point of articulation with another bone is called


An infection of the bone is


The epiphyses are the

end of long bones

Oil gland of the skin are called


The periosteum is

the membrane that covers bone

A transparent structure that permits the eye to focus rays to form an image on the retina is the


The purpose of the iris is to

regulate the amount of light entering the eye

The structure that is seen from the outside as the colored portion of the eye is the


The nerve that carries visual impulses to the brain is the

optic nerve

The white outer layer of the eyeball is the


A jelly-like substance in the eye's posterior cavity is called

vitreous humor

The structure that connects the middle ear and the throat, allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely is the

eustachian tube

The conjunctiva is the ?

covering of the anterior globe except the cornea

The number of pairs of spinal nerves is ?


The great sensory nerve of the face and head is the


The cranial nerve that contains special sense fibers for hearing as well as for balance is


The part of the brain responsible for maintenance of balance and muscle tone,as well as coordination of voluntary muscle, is the


The frontal,temporal,,parietal, and occipital lobes are divisions of the


The area of the brain that controls the respiratory center is the

medulla oblongata

The largest part of the brain is the


The outer most covering of the brain and spinal cord is the

dura matter

Cerebrospinal fluid circulates freely in the

subarachnoid space

The brain contains four fluid-filled spaces called the


Which of the following structures transmits sound vibrations to the inner ear?

tympanic membrane

The winding,cone-shaped tube of the inner ear is


Which of the following is not an auditory ossicle


Cross-matching of blood

determines suitability of donor by mixing donor's RBC's with recipient serum

The highly specialized blood cell whose function is oxygen transportation is

red blood cell

A differential count provides an estimate of

the percentage of each type of white cell

Mixing of incompatible may result in


Platelets are essential for

coagulation of blood

In the normal adult,the average number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter of circulating blood is


A large superficial vein in the lower extremity,which begins in the foot and extends up the medial side of the leg,the knee and the thigh, is called the

greater saphenous

The vein in the bend of the elbow that is commonly used as a site for venipuncture is the

median cubital vein

The artery at the back of the knee is the


The superior and inferior mesenteric arteries supply the


The vein that drains the veins of the chest wall and empties into the superior vena cava is the


The veins of the head and neck are drained by the

jugular veins

Which arteries supply the heart


The atrioventricular (A-V) node causes

at the base of the brain

Why would an aspirated foreign body be more likely to enter the right bronchus rather than the left bronchus?

the right bronchus is more vertical shorter,and wider than the left

The spleen filters


Circulation that is established through an anastomosis between two vessels supplying or draining two adjacent structures is called

collateral circulation

Which artery supplies the head and neck?


The serous membrane that covers the heart is the


The circle of willis is located

at the base of the brain

The branch of the external iliac artery that is located in the thigh is called the

femoral artery

The descending aorta terminates at the level of the fourth limbar verebra, dividing into

two common iliac arteries

The contractions of the heart are synchronized and regulated by the pacemaker of the heart,called the

sinoatrial node

Tiny blood vessels that permeate and nourish tissue are called


The wall or partition dividing the heart into right and left sides is called the


The heart valve that close at the time the right ventricle begins pumping,preventing blood from returning to the right atrim,is the


The inner lining of the heart ,composed of smooth, delicate membrane, is called the


The spleen is located

in the left hypochondriac region

parts of the lymphatic system

palatine tonsil, submandibular lymph nodes, cervical lymph nodes, axillary lymph nodes, mammary lymph node, iliac lymph nodes, inguinal lymph nodes, intestinal lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus gland, spleen

The S-shaped bend in the lower colon is called the


The reabsorption of water and electrolytes is the main function of the

large intestine

The terminal portion of the large intestine is the

anal canal

Which structure lies retroperitoneally


The first portion of the large intestine is the


The appendix is attached to the


The primary function of the gallbladder is

storage of bile

when the gallbladder contracts, bile is ejected into the


The area in the duodenum where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct empty is called

ampulla of vater

Which structure is also known as the "fatty" apron

greater omentum

The common bile duct is the union of the

cystic duct and hepatic duct

The yellow tinge in the skin symptomic of obstructive jaundice is caused by the accumulation of what substance in the blood and tissue


The head of the pancreas is located ?

in the curve of the duodenum

The sphincter at the junction of the small and large intestines is the

ileocecal sphincter

The portion of the small intestine that receives secretion from the pancreas and the liver is the


The region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum is the ?


The mesentery is

A double-layered peritoneal structure shaped like a fan

large central portion of the stomach is called the


The muscle serving as a valve to prevent regurgitation of food from the intestine back into the stomach is known as the

pyloric sphincter

The digestive passageway that begins at the pharynx and terminates in the stomach is the


The point at which the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm is called the


Adenoids are also called

pharyngeal tonsils

The function of the molar teeth is to

crush and grind food

Mumps occur in the

parotid glands

The salivary glands located under the tongue are the


The liver has

two lobes

The glomerulus is a

cluster of capillaries

The tubes or cuplike extensions that project from the renal pelvis are called


Urine is transported along the ureters to the bladder by

peristaltic waves

The smooth, trangular area at the bottom of the bladder that contains three ening is called the


The kidneys are positioned


The kidney structure that filters blood , returns useful ubstances to blood , and removes substances from blood that are not needed is the


Blood is supplied to the kidney by means of the renal artery, which arises from the

abdominal aorta

The indentation in kidney through which all structures must pass as they enter or leave the kidney is the


The outer layer of the kidney is known as the


The portion of the male urethra that passes through the pelvic floor is called the

membranous portion

A lack of voluntary control over micturition is called


Urine empties from the bladder through a tube called ?


Fertilization occurs in the ?

fallopian tubes

The perineum is ?

the area between the vagina and the anus

The small, sensitive structure of the female homologous to the male penis is the ?


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