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the story of the sociology class discussing race and ethnicity that opens this chapter suggests that more and more people:
no longer think of themselves in terms of simple racial categories
Compared to the people in Brazil, people in the United States typically
see fewer racial categories
Which of the following categories refers to cultural heritage?
Which of the following concepts refers to a category of people distuingished by physical or cultural traits who are socially disadvantaged?
A Minority is defined as a category of people who are?
different in some visible way, and also socially disadvantged
All people in a minority are sociall disadvanteged
Refers to a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people?
Sterotypes refers to?
exagerrated descriptions applied to everyone in the same category
Immigrants do the jobs?
no one else wants to do
thomas sowell and IQ
cultural patterns explain much about IQ
Assimilation refers to patterns by which
minorities gradually adopt patterns of dominant categories
Peter Berger described using the sociological perspective as seeing the __________ in the __________.
general; particular
William Foote Whyte teamed up with a Cornerville man named "Doc" who served as his
key informitant
One consequence of living in a low-income country for women is, on average, having more children than women living in high-income nations
C. Wright Mills explained that the sociological imagination encourages people to see their personal problems as their own individual responsibility.
As a discipline, sociology first took root in France, Germany, and England
Robert K. Merton said that social patterns have much the same effect of all members of a society.
Empirical evidence refers to what people in a society agree is true
A country in which average income is typical for the world as a whole and in which people are as likely to live in a rural area as in an urban area would fall into which of the following categories of countries?
middle income nations
In Barbara Ehrenreich's study of low-wage work, she concluded that
many low-wage workers feel unworthy, even to the point of not trying.
By linking specific facts together to give us meaning, we create a:
The early U.S. sociologist who earned the first doctorate ever awarded by Harvard University to a person of color was:
W. E. B. Du Bois.
A criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach is that it:
b. ignores how structural factors such as class affect people's experiences.
Two variables are said to display correlation if:
they vary together
Which of the following is true about positivist sociology?
it favors quanative data
Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview?
The chapter opening story of the diversity initiative at investment company Charles Schwab & Co. shows us that:
learning more about cultural diversity can help a company boost sales.
Sam had unpleasant and frightening experiences encountering a strange way of life when he visited another country over spring break. His experiences can be called:
culture shock
Sociologists define a symbol as:
anything that carries a meaning to people who share a culture
4. Critics of the Sapir-Whorf thesis point out that:
language does not determine reality
Read the list of values below. Which from that list is NOT one of the values central to U.S. culture, as identified by the sociologist Robin Williams?
beliefe in tradition
High-income nations tend to have cultural values that emphasize:
self expression
Gerhard Lenski focused on which of the following factors as having great power to shape a society?
Compared to an industrial society, a postindustrial society is based on:
an information based economy
Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are referred to as:
popular culture
The concept "cultural integration" suggests an important fact, which is that:
c. change in one cultural pattern is usually linked to changes in others.
The story of Charles Schwab & Co. shows that companies profit from focusing on only people who display mainstream U.S. cultural patterns.
Children cannot gain any understanding of what a "family" is before they learn the word for it.
While English is the first language of just 10 percent of humanity, it has become the preferred second language in most of the world.
Values are standards that serve as broad guidelines for living.
Compared with cultures around the world, the U.S. way of life emphasizes activity, materialism, and progress
The tragic case of Anna, the isolated girl studied by Kingsley Davis, shows that:
b. without social experience, a child is incapable of thought or meaningful action.
The social sciences, including sociology, support the basic claim that:
It is human nature to nurture
Jean Piaget's focus was on
d. cognition, which means how people think and understand.
The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg's research was:
moral reasoning
George Herbert Mead considered the self to be:
a. the part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image.
George Herbert Mead placed the origin of the self in:
social experience
. In George Herbert Mead's model, which of the following activities is an example of the play stage in the development of self?
a child playing catch
Which of the following statements comes closest to describing Erik H. Erikson's view of socialization?
a. Personality develops over the entire life course in patterned ways.
Critics of Erik H. Erikson's theory of personality development point out that:
all of the above
The text points to research that found the single most important factor in being defined an adult is:
completing school
Sociologists claim the main reason that many young people in the United States experience confusion during adolescence is:
a. cultural inconsistency in defining this stage of life as partly childlike and partly adultlike
In her research, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross found that death:
. is an orderly transition involving specific stages
Which of the following concepts refers to efforts to radically change someone's personality through careful control of the environment?
According to Erving Goffman, the goal of a total institution is:
c. to radically alter a person's personality or behavior.
. John B. Watson was one of the first social scientists to claim that specific patterns of behavior are not instinctive, but learned.
Harold and Sybil are lost. Harold will not stop to ask for directions as Sybil wants him to. This chapter-opening story shows that:
c. men avoid asking for directions because asking for help makes them dependent on others
Which of the following concepts defines who and what we are in relation to others?
Which of the following concepts refers to social position that is assumed voluntarily and that reflects a lot of personal ability and effort?
achieved status
Sociologists use which of the following concepts to refer to the
behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?
Which of the following concepts refers to conflict among roles corresponding to two or more statuses?
role conflict
Joan is an excellent artist and enjoys her work, but feels she cannot devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing:
role conflict
Which of the following concepts refers to the process by which people creatively shape their world as they interact?
social construction of reality
8. The Thomas theorem states that
. situations defined as real are real in their consequences.
The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance is referred to as:
dramgurtical analysis
Who is the sociologist who developed the approach called "dramaturgical analysis"?
Erving goffman
Another, more common term for nonverbal communication is:
body language
Jennifer Keys found that how women respond to an abortion is guided by emotional scripts or "feeling rules."
Deborah Tannen's research shows that women and men share the same patterns in their communication.
People sometimes use jokes to "put down" others—a basic form of social conflict.
The same comedians perform all over the world because humor "travels well."