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Neuro structures and functions

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Olfactory Nerve
CN I - smell; cribiform plate with olfactory bulb
Optic Nerve
CN II - sight and pupillary reflex; optic canal with optic chiasm
Occulomotor Nerve
CN III - eye muscles except lateral rectus and superior oblique; superior orbital fissure
Trochlear Nerve
CN IV - superior oblique muscle; superior orbital fissure
Trigeminal Nerve 1
Ophthalmic CN V1 - sensory of nose to tip, eyebrows, and forehead; superior orbital fissure
Trgeminal Nerve 2
Maxillary CN V2 - sensory of upper lip and cheek; foramen rotundum
Trigeminal Nerve 3
Mandibular CN V3 - sensory of lower lip, chin, jaw, and in front of ear; foreman ovale
Abducens Nerve
CN VI - lateral rectus muscle; superior orbital fissure
Facial Nerve
CN VII - facial muscles of expression; internal acoustic meatus; exits at stylomastoid foramen
Vestibulocochlear Nerve
CN VIII - sensory of ear and hearing and vestibular sense; internal acoustic meatus
Glossopharyngeal Nerve
CN IX - upper pharyngeal muscles, parotid gland, sensory of pharynx, posterior 1/3 of tongue, tonsils, middle ear; jugular foramen
Vagus Nerve
CN X - parasympathetic efferent of internal organs: heart, lungs, trachea, larynx, pharynx, palate, GI tract; jugular foramen
Accessory Nerve
CN XI - sternocleidomastoid and trapezious muscles; jugular foramen
Hypoglossal Nerve
CN XII - tongue muscles and strap muscles supplied by ansa cervicalis; hypoglossal canal
Canals of Sphenoid bone
optic canal, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, superior orbital fissure
Canals of Temporal bone
foramen lacerum, internal acoustic meatus, ,jugular foramen
Canals of Occipital bone
hypoglossal foramen, foramen magnum
Foramen Magnum
vertebral arteries, medulla oblongota, spinal roots of accessory nerve
Foramen Spinosum
middle meningeal artery
Anterior Cerebral artery
enters longitudinal fissure; supplies forebrain
Internal Carotid Artery
neck and dumps into anterior and middle cerebral arteries
Middle Cerebral artery
supplies lateral sides of frontal and parietal lobes and temporal lobe
Posterior Cerebral artery
supplies occipital region
Anterior Communicating artery
connects two anterior cerebral arteries
posterior communicating artery
connects internal carotid to posterior cerebral artery
Pontine arteries
supplies pons and adjacent parts of brain
Superior Cerebellar artery
superior half of cerebellum and parts of midbrain
anterior inferior cerebellar artery
AICA: anterior inferior quarter of cerebellum
posterior inferior cerebellar artery
PICA: undersurface of cerebellum and notch between two hemispheres of cerebellum
Vertebral arteries
posterior spinal cord and dumps into basilar and posterior cerebral arteries
Basilar artery
supplies posterior cerebral and underside of brain
Circle of Willis
internal carotid, anterior cerebral, posterior cerebral, anterior communicating, and posterior communicating
Central Sulcus
divides frontal and parietal lobes
Precentral gyrus
main motor cortex; specific body map of discrete movements referred to as motor homunculus
Postcentral gyrus
main sensory cortex; specific body map of sensory discrimination referred to as the sensory homunculus - quality and location of senses (except olfactory)
Longitudinal fissure
divides two hemispheres of cerebrum
lobes of cerebrum
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula
poles of cerebrum
frontal, temporal, occipital with gyri and sulci
parts of brainstem
midbrain, pons, medulla
Falx cerebri
part of dura in longitudinal fissure
Corpus Callosum
commissural fibers for interhemispheric communication
Fornix
under corpus callosum; limbic function - basic emotions, motivational drive and memory, divides to hippocampus
Thalamus
part of diencephalon under fornix and choroid plexus; sensory relay station for most CNS impulses before going to cerebral cortex for more processing (except olfactory senses)
Lateral geniculate body
nuclei of thalamus; visual relay
Medial geniculate body
nuclei of thalamus; auditory relay
Parts of Midbrain
pineal body, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, trochlear nerve
Pineal Body
endocrine gland related to circadian rhythm (sleep patterns)
Superior Colliculus
visual motor reflex
Inferior Colliculus
acoustic motor reflex
Parts of Pons
Cerebellar peduncles and 4th ventricle
Parts of thalamus
interthalamic adhesion, 3rd ventricle, lateral geniculate body, medial geniculate body
Cerebellar peduncles
tracts of fibers going to cerebellum seen when cerebellum is removed
Parts of Medulla
posterior median sulcus, gracile tubercle, fasciculus gracilis, posterior intermediate sulcus, cuneatus tubercle, fasciculus cuneatus, posterior lateral sulcus
Parts of Cerebellum
anterior lobe, primary fissure, posterior lobe, superior vermis
Anterior lobe of cerebellum
general function of controlling muscle tone
Posterior lobe of cerebellum
general function of coordinating voluntary motion
superior vermis
midline structure of cerebellum; function of equilibrium
Tonsils of cerebellum
an area or herniation
Flocculonodular lobe
cerebellum; equilibrium function
Frontal lobe of cerebrum function
voluntary motor control on oppostie side of body, motor planning, language execution, executive function of decision making, initiation of emotional expression and movement, social appropriateness
Parietal lobe function
discrimination of sensation from opposite side of body, sensory integration, language processing, awareness of body in space; superior and inferior parietal lobules
Supramarginal gyrus
inferior parietal lobule: functions in language processing, extracting meaning from language
Angular gyrus
inferior parietal lobule: language processing, understanding metaphors, connecting visual stimuli with language
Lateral sulcus
divides temporal lobe from parietal lobe and frontal lobe
Temporal Lobe function
primary auditory reception, memory
superior temporal gyrus
general auditory processing
transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl
primary auditory cortex
middle temporal gyrus
visual memory (recognizing faces)
inferior temporal gyrus
visual memory
Occipital lobe function
primary visual cortex and visual processing
Insula function
limbic function of providing an emotional context for sensory experience; pain perception
Parahippocampal gyrus
outer cortical gray matter surrounding the hippocampus - encoding and recognition of scenes and topography rather than races or objects
uncus
limbic and olfactory function (medial, superior edge of temporal pole)
Rhinal Sulcus
associated with parahippocampal gyrus
optic chiasm
partial crossing of optic nerve tracts
pituitary
endocrine function; with infundibulum
mammillary bodies
limbic function
Anterior Brainstem
some cranial nerves and anterior median fissure and anteriorlateral sulcus
Medulla
respiration, cardiac and vasomotor centers of function
Olive of medulla
related to cerebellum function (Lateral of anterior)
Pyramid of medulla
corticospinal tracts from cortex to spinal cord; voluntary motor (anterior of medulla)
Pyramidal decussation
crossing of the corticospinal tracts (lower medulla between pyramids)
Calcarine Sulcus
occipital lobe; either side is primary vision function
Cingular Gyrus
above corpus callosum; limbic - motor behavior initiation
Choroid plexus
processes cerebrospinal fluid
Hypothalamus
center for basic homeostatic function: temperature, thirst, hunger
cerebral aqueduct
duct that runs between 3rd and 4th ventricles
Median aperture
foramen of magendie; bottom of cerebrospinal fluid tract and goes posterior
arbor vitae
"tree branches" of cerebellum
Internal Capsule of cerebrum
white matter fibers coming and going to cerebral cortex
Basal Ganglia
a series of interconnected groups of cell bodies related to the initiation of behavior, intensity or amplitude of behavior and adjustment of behavior related to external cues all of which includes motor behavior
Caudate nucleus
C-shaped nucleus that follows the wall of the lateral ventricle and anterioroly blends with the lentiform nucleus
Lentiform nucleus
triangular shaped nucleus made of two distinct nuclei: Putamen and Globus Pallidus internus and externus
Substantia nigra
processes dopamine
red nucleus
circular nuclei; motor function
Hippocampus
memory and limbic
Lateral Ventricle
frontal horn, temporal horn, and occipital horn
Foramen of Monro
interventricular foramen; between 3rd and lateral ventricles
Foramen of Luschka
lateral apertures; runs anteriorly from 4th ventricle
Gray matter
dorsal horn (sensory and pain processing) and dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion (towards CNS from outside spinal cord); ventral horn; lateral horn (autonomic nervous system, thoracic region); gray and white commissure
Fasciculus Gracilis
discriminative touch and proprioception of lower body
Fasciculus Cuneatus
discriminative touch and proprioception of upper body
Whole Spinal cord
cervical enlargement, lumbar enlargement, conus medullaris (L1), cauda equina, meningies
Meningies of spinal cord
dura, arachnoid, pia, denticulate ligaments (connect dura to spinal cord)
dura mater
thick tough fibrous tissue that adheres brain to skull
falx cerebella
small slip of dura between cerebellar hemispheres
tentorium cerebelli
dura between the cerebrum and cerebellum
dural veinous drainage
veins from brain dump blood into a group of vessel like cavities that are made of dura; drain into jugular vein
superior sagittal sinus
mid-line on top of falx cerebri - contains arachnoid granulations
straight sinus
mid line on top of tentorium cerebelli
confluence of sinuses
where straight, superior sagittal, and occipital sinuses come together
transverse sinus
transversely at the level of the tentorium cerebelli; makes an impression in the skull
sigmoid sinus
s-shaped sinus just before the jugular foramen
occipital sinus
runs longitudinally behind occipital lobe
Cavernous sinus
at the base of skull just in front and behind the sella turcica
Arachnoid
wispy layer - blood vessels lie in the subarachnoid space; between dura and brain
arachnoid granulations
reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid
Pia
adherent to brain and spinal cord (between arachnoid and brain
Sagittal suture
parietal-parietal
Coronal suture
frontal-parietal
Squamosal suture
parietal-temporal
lambdoidal suture
parietal-occipital
Tympanic membrane
ear drum
malleus
seem through tympanic membrane; first bone of ear
incus
middle bone of ear
stapes
stirrup shaped bone of ear
Auditory tube
Eustachain tube
Oval Window of ear
Vestibular window
Round window of ear
cochlear window
Cochlea
snail shaped structure
Vestibular apparatus
maintains balance and spatial orientation
Bony labyrinth
osseous - bony structure surrounding inner ear
perilymph
fluid between bony and membranous labryinth
membranous labryinth
semicircular canals, vestibule, endolymph
semicircular canals
detect rotational acceleration of head; anterior, middle, posterior with ampulla
vestibule
detects linear acceleration of head and static gravity; utricle and saccule
utricle
macula - raised oval surface on wall of utricle that contains hair cells of the sensory epithelium; a gelatinous membrane containing calcium carbonate crystals called otoliths that stimulate the hair cells; more anterior and superior
saccule
contains macula; more posterior
endolymph
fluid within the mambranous labyrinth
Superior rectus muscle
upward gaze
medial rectus
medial gaze
inferior rectus
downward gaze
inferior oblique
extorsion of eye (bottom of eye rolls nasally)
superior oblique
intorsion of eye (top of eye rolls nasally)
lateral rectus
lateral gaze
cornea
membrane over top of pupil
sclera
white of the eye
anterior chamber
between cornea and iris; contains aqueous humor
Iris
colored portion of eye; Miosis and Mydriasis- pupillary constriction and dilation
Schlemm's canal
drains aqueous humor from anterior chamber; at edge of cornea and sclera
Posterior chamber
between Iris and Lens
vitreous body
back part of eye
Lens
behind Iris
Ciliary muscle
alters shape of lens
Retina
wraps around inside of eye; around vitreous body
choroid
between retina and sclera - composed of layers of blood vessels that nourish back of eye
Macula Lutea
yellowish spot at back of eye - straight back
Fovea Centralis
within macula lutea; area of sharpest vision
Optic disc
blind spot; all axons collect to leave the eye forming the optic nerve