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NYC Food Protection Certificate Exam
Terms in this set (190)
All food service establishments must have
a current and valid permit issued by the NYC Health Department
When do Health Inspectors have the right to inspect a food service or food processing establishment?
as long as it is in operation
During an inspection, inspectors must be given access to
all areas of the food establishment
Who is required to have a Food Protection Certificate.
supervisors of all food service establishments
Food is defined as
any edible substance, ice, beverage, or ingredient intended for use and used or sold for human consumption.
Potentially Hazardous Food (PHF) refers to?
Foods which support rapid growth of microorganisms.
Examples of Potentially Hazardous Foods
Examples: raw and cooked meats, poultry, milk and milk products, fish, shellfish, tofu, cooked rice, pasta, beans, potatoes, cut leafy greens, cut tomatoes and melons, garlic in oil etc. (Exceptions: Air-cooled hard-boiled eggs with intact shell, beef jerky, cheese pizza, crispy bacon)
Not Potentially Hazardous prepared Foods
Air-cooled hard-boiled eggs with intact shell, beef jerky, cheese pizza, crispy bacon
The Temperature Danger Zone
41°F and 140°F.
The three thermometers allowed to be used for measuring food temperatures:
Examples: Bi-metallic stem (range from 0°F to 220°F), thermocouple, and thermistor (digital)
Kind of thermometer which are prohibited by law in a food establishment.
Meat inspected by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture must have what?
must have a USDA inspection stamp.
Raw shell eggs must be stored at a minimum temperature of
Smoked fish must be held at
38°F or below
Smoked fish held above what temperature causes the growth of which kind of bacteria
38°F causes growth of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.
All refrigerated food must be held at or below
Shellfish must be received with
the shellfish tags
After shellfish is used up
tags must be kept on file for at least 90 days
Milk and milk products must be pasteurized with sell-by dates of
Milk and milk products must be ultra-pasteurized with sell-by dates of
All fruits and vegetables served raw must be
thoroughly washed before being served.
Canned products must be rejected if there are
Dents at the seam, swelling, severe rust, leakage or no label. . (exception: slight dent on the body of the can)
Home canned foods
are unacceptable types of canning
All commercial modified atmosphere packaged foods
type of packaged food that must be used per manufacture specifications
Vacuum Packaging of any food product in a retail food establishment
Prohibited by law unless special authorization is obtained through the Department of Health
The acronym FIFO means
First In First Out
The first step in implementing FIFO is to
date the products is the is the first step
How far off the floor must all food items must be stored?
6" or more
In order to prevent cross-contamination, raw foods in a refrigerator must be stored
below cooked foods
slow down the growth of microorganisms
All cold foods must be held at
41°F or below at all times (except smoked fish at 38°F)
Dry storage areas
Must be kept well lighted and ventilated
Never store foods
under waste water lines
Qualities of food for storage must be
kept covered and stored in vermin-proof containers
Ice intended for human consumption
cannot be used for storing cans, bottles or other food products
When foods are stored directly in ice
The water from that ice must be drained constantly.
"First Aid Choking" poster
must be displayed conspicuously in each designated eating area.
Food establishments which serve alcoholic beverages are required to display
the "Alcohol and Pregnancy Warning" sign.
A "Wash Hands" sign
must be displayed at all hand washing sinks.
"No smoking" signs
must be displayed throughout each facility.
There are three main hazards to our health in a food establishment:
physical, chemical and biological.
A physical hazard in food
The presence of a foreign object (glass fragments, pieces of metal, etc.)
a chemical hazard.
Presence of harmful chemicals (pesticide, cleaning agents, prescription medicine etc.) in a food
The presence of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi) in food is what kind of hazard?
Foods that have been contaminated with pathogenic bacteria
have no change in appearance, taste or smell.
Under favorable conditions bacteria can double their population in what amount of time?
Bacteria can double their population every 20 to 30 minutes in what conditions?
There are 4 phases of bacterial growth:
Lag, Log, Stationary and Death.
The most rapid growth of bacteria (FATTOM) takes place in what phase
The log phase causes what of bacteria?
The six factors that affect the growth of bacteria are:
Food, Acidity (Low acidity), TDZ, Time, Oxygen, Moisture (FATTOM).
reproduce in food; they only use food as a means to get inside the human body.
Hepatitis A and norovirus contaminate the food supply
through fecal (human) contaminated waters and food
The food-borne parasite typically found in under-cooked pork
is caused by a parasite known as Trichinella spiralis.
Trichinella spiralis cooking requirements.
can be eliminated by cooking pork to 155°F for 15 seconds
Marine fish contain what?
Anisakis simplex is a food-borne parasite found where?
Mainly associated with raw poultry and raw shell eggs.
one must always use pasteurized eggs only.
When preparing any egg recipe where eggs are not cooked or partially cooked,
Clostridium perfringens growth can be controlled by
rapid cooling, rapid re-heating and avoid preparing foods in advance
Staphylococcus aureus is carried by?
bacterium that is commonly carried by healthy human beings.
Staphylococcal food intoxication
is caused by Staphylococcus aureus
food-borne illness Staphylococcal food intoxication can be prevented by
good personal hygiene and avoiding bare hands contact with ready-to-eat foods.
Food workers sick with an illness that can be transmitted by contact with food or through food should be
prevented from working until fully recovered.
Ground meats such as hamburgers must be cooked to a minimum temperature of
158°F to eliminate E. coli 0157:H7
E. coli 0157:H7 is caused by
ground meat not cooked over 158°F causes
botulism is caused by
What virus is home-canned foods associated with?
Clostridium botulinum bacterium
Ciguatera Intoxication occurs in what kind of environmental conditions
warm weather when toxic red algae in the water are eaten by small fish. The small fish are then eaten by certain predatory fish (barracuda, red snapper etc.,)
Humans become sick from predatory fish with accumulated toxins from
Scombroid poisoning occurs from
eating certain fish (e.g., tuna, mackerel, bonito, mahi mahi, blue fish, etc.) with high levels of histamines due to time and temperature abuse.
Hands must be washed thoroughly after
any activity in which the hands have become contaminated. For example, before starting work, after handling raw foods, coughing, sneezing, smoking, eating, drinking, scratching, etc.
hands become contaminated
before starting work, after handling raw foods, coughing, sneezing, smoking, eating, drinking, scratching.
The NYC Health Code requires that hand-washing sinks must be located
within 25 feet of each food preparation, food service and ware-washing area and in or adjacent to employee and patron bathrooms.
The hand wash sinks must be provided with
soap, hot and cold running water, disposable towels or a hand dryer and a "wash hands" sign.
The NYC Health Code requires that all food workers wear
proper hair restraints, clean aprons and outer garments, abstain from wearing jewelry and wearing make-up.
It is illegal to handle ready-to-eat foods
with bare hands. Workers must use gloves, tongs, deli paper, spatula or other clean and sanitary utensils. Foods that will be cooked (e.g. raw beef for stew, raw dough for bread, etc.) may be handled with clean bare hands.
To handle ready to eat foods workers must use
gloves, tongs, deli paper, spatula or other clean and sanitary utensils.
Clean bare hands con only touch food
that will be cooked
The three acceptable methods of thawing frozen foods are to
refrigerate them, place under cold running water or in a microwave oven with continuous cooking afterwards.
is when bacteria from a raw food get into a cooked or ready-to-eat food
The correct cooking temperature for poultry, stuffed meat and stuffing is
Ground meat and foods containing ground meat must be cooked to an internal temperature of
To prevent illness, pork must be cooked to an internal temperature of
Eggs, fish, shellfish, lamb, and other meats must be cooked to a minimum temperature of
All hot foods stored on a hot-holding unit must be held at
140°F or higher
Some of the effective ways to rapidly cool foods are:
immersion in an ice-water bath with occasional stirring, use of 4 inches shallow cooling pans with a product depth of 1 to 2 inches, using a rapid-chill unit, and cutting solid foods into smaller pieces (6 lbs. or less).
Hot foods placed in a refrigerator for cooling must be covered only after they have completely cooled to
41°F or below
Previously cooked and refrigerated foods that will be served from a hot holding unit must be
rapidly reheated to 165°F using a stove or an oven.
Never use a hot-holding unit
to reheat foods.
Bare hands may never be used
when working with ready-to-eat foods.
When working with ready-to-eat-foods
Always use utensils such as clean and sanitary pair of gloves, tongs, spatula, deli paper, spoon, knife, etc.
To prevent contamination of food disposable gloves must be
Must be changed often to prevent contamination of food
culinary (food related) and pot/dish washing sinks must be fitted with
Atmospheric Vacuum Breakers (AVB) must be installed
in any equipment that has a direct connection with potable water supply.
Types of equipment that have direct connections with potable water supplies
ice-machine, coffee machines, dishwashers, etc.
Cross-connection can be prevented by installing what?
installing a hose-bib vacuum breaker.
All gas-fired hot water heaters must be installed by
a licensed plumber
All gas-fired hot water heaters must be monitored
for back draft.
NYC laws make it illegal to dump grease
in any sink that does not have a proper grease interceptor.
The proper sequence for the manual dish washing operations is
Wash, Rinse, Sanitize and Air-dry.
Between each use, cutting boards must be
Washed, Rinsed and Sanitized.
What requirements must water be met to sanatize using the hot-water method?
Immersing utensils in water at 170°F for 30 seconds or more
To prepare a 50 PPM chlorine based sanitizing solution
, add 1/2 ounce of bleach to 1 gallon of water.
To prepare a 100PPM chlorine based sanitizing solution
add one ounce of bleach to 1 gallon of water.
50 PPM sanitizing solution
is used for immersion/soaking of utensils for at least 1 minute.
typically used for wiping, spraying or pouring
100 PPM Sanitizing solution
Wiping cloths must be stored
in a sanitizing solution with strength of 50 PPM.
During chemical sanitization, the chemical solution
must be checked with a test kit
Bathrooms for patrons must be provided
when there are 20 seats or more in the dining area of a food establishment.
The three key strategies of Integrated Pest Management are:
Starve them, Build them out and Destroy them.
When food is unavailable to mice
Mice will move out.
Rats are known to enter buildings
through openings that are as small as the size of a quarter
Presence of fresh rat droppings in a food establishment
is a critical violation.
Insecticides and rodenticides can only be applied in a restaurant by a
Licensed Pest Control Officer.
NYC Health code requires that a pest control officer must inspect a food establishment
Inspection at least once a month
HACCP is an acronym that stands for
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
The seven principles of HACCP are:
hazard, ccp, set up limits, moniter, take action, verify, record keeping
A food safety system which is mainly concerned with the control of harmful microorganisms.
A Critical Control Point (CCP)
is any point in the food flow where action must be taken to eliminate the hazard.
If potentially hazardous foods are left in the Temperature Danger Zone for more than two hours
Then the food must be discarded as it is no longer considered safe.
Whenever making cold salads such as tuna
It is recommended that ingredients are pre-chilled.
Artificial trans fat increases
LDL - the bad cholesterol, leading to heart disease.
Artificial trans fat are banned
from all Restaurant foods.
An excellent way to improve food safety, security and general work practice is to
Conduct a self-assessment of food operations on a regular basis.
The most common injuries among restaurant workers in a work place are:
slips, trips, falls, cuts, lacerations, burns, muscle strains, sprains and electrocution.
To avoid slips, trips and falls,
slip resistant shoes must be worn by food workers.
Most harmful microorganisms reproduce rapidly.
Within The Temperature Danger Zone
Foods that provide suitable conditions for
rapid growth of microorganisms.
Poultry, stuffed meats, stuffing
Pork and Pork Products
Shell eggs, all meats but pork, poultry & ground meats
PHF cooling time first half
2 hours when cooling from 140°F
PHF cooling time second half
and more than 4 hours when
cooling from 70°F to 41°F or below
Hot water sanitizing
This method of sanitizing
involves the use of hot water and a
three compartment sink.
170°F (not food)
Temperature for 30 seconds to sanitize
Reduced size to cool Meat roasts, Poultry and Fish
Depth of pan required to cool thick foods
like chili and refried beans
The strength of sanitizing solution for a wiping cloth
31°F for 15 hours
Required freezing criteria for any fish to be consumed raw
Sulfites can be used to
maintain the color and freshness of cut fruits and vegetables
Under favorable conditions bacteria can double their population
every 20 to 30 minutes
growth of bacteria possible
6 conditions for the growth of bacteria
food, acidity, temperature, time, oxygen, moisture
Food types bacteria like
high protein foods of animal origin
plant products that are heat treated
Bacteria prefer what kind of acidity?
Bacteria generally prefer neutral foods.
Bacteria do not do well in foods that are
food that is too acidic or too alkaline
Why is vinegar used as a preservative
to prevent growth of Bacteria
What pH balance is considered too acidic for food to grow?
Any food with a pH value of 4.6 or less
Bacteria prefer what kind of temperature?
Bacteria that prefer human food grow between what temperatures?
Between 41-140°F (Temperature Danger Zone)
Mesophilic Bacteria grow best at temperatures between
Thermophilic Bacteria prefer heat and grow best at temperatures between
110-150°F or more
Psychrophilic Bacteria prefer temperatures
That are cold and grow at below 50°F
The processes of dehydration, freezing and preserving in salt or sugar to remove moisture from foods.
Bacteria can be controlled by removing what?
The Water Activity value measures
The amount of moisture in a food
What Water Activity value does not have enough moisture to support the active growth of bacteria?
.85 or less
The most reliable and time-tested method of destroying bacteria is
the use of heat
What are the two methods for pasteurizing milk?
holding or flash
The holding method
milk is held at a temperature of 145°F for thirty minutes
The Flash method to pasteurize milk
milk is held at 161°F for fifteen seconds ("high temperature short time" method )
Chemicals that kill bacteria are called
Germicides or bactericides
Examples of chemicals that kill bacteria:
carbolic acid, formaldehyde, iodine, chlorine and quaternary compounds
Bacteria cannot be destroyed by
refrigeration of foods.
Cold temperatures from 0°F to 41°F will
inhibit or slow the growth of bacteria
Freezing foods at or below 0°F
will not kill bacteria
The most popular chemical sanitizer
Symptoms to Salmonella enteritidis occur in what amount of time
Salmonella enteritidis causes
Abdominal pain, diarrhea, chills, fever, nausea, vomiting, and malaise
Duration to cook poultry, stuffed meat and stuffing
165°F for at least 15 seconds
Required refrigeration temperature for chicken, poultry and other meats
41°F or lower
Eggs must be stored
In a refrigerator at 45°F or lower
Eggs must be cooked
145°F or higher (or per customer request)
Staphylococcal gastroenteritis is the bacteria that causes
Staphylococcus aureus occurs in what type of foods
room temperature foods like Baked goods, custards, pastry
Ham & sliced meats with low water activity.
Onset of Staphylococcus aureus takes how long?
Staphylococcus aureus causes
Abdominal pain, diarrhea, chills, fever, nausea, vomiting, and malaise
Staphylococcal gastroenteritis is found in
Healthy human beings (in nose, throat, hair, on infected cuts, bruises, abscesses and acne)
Campylobacteriosis is caused by what bacteria?
Campylobacter jejuni can be found where?
Poultry, pigs, sheep and cattle
Foods effected by Campylobacter jejuni
Chicken, other poultry, beef, liver and water
Listeriosis is caused by what bacteria?
Listeria monocytogenes is found in
Soil, infected animals or humans, and water
Foods that may cause Listeriosis
Unpateurized milk, raw vegetables, poultry, raw meats, cheese
Low grade fever, flu-like symptoms, stillbirths, meningitis and encephalitis
Fatalities may occur
Listeria monocytogenes bacterial infection
Shigella species causes what infection?
Shigella species originates in
Bacteria that starts in humans
Shigellosis can be caused by
contamination from raw produce, moist prepared foods- tuna, macaroni, potato salads, etc
2 ways Shigellosis can be prevented
Avoiding bare hands contact with ready-to-eat foods & Rapidly cool foods to 41°F or below
Clostridium botulinum can be found in
Soil, water, intestinal tract of animals and fish Home-canned foods, smoked and vacuum packaged fish, garlic in oil, baked potatoes, and thick stews
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