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Social and Cultural Diversity
Terms in this set (61)
Over __________ percent of the population over 4 years of age speaks a language at home other than English.
The median age of the US population is over _________; non Hispanic whites are the oldest group
The aging of the _____________ continues to result in the graying of the U.S. About 10,000 ____________ reach 65 years of age every day. Over 14.5 percent of the population is over 65.
Are sometimes referred to as Generation X (born between 1965 and 1976). They are characterized by seeking stimulation, wanting the facts-the rights answers, wanting exciting, non boring jobs, and keeping options open.
(Echo boomers, internet generation, nexters, generation y) are the largest living generation and follow Gen X individuals. They were raise to be self confident, tech aware, goal oriented, civic minded, and multiculturally inclusive.
More than 50 percent of marriages begin as _____________ (about 6 percent of adults) decreasing the marriage rate, increasing the age of first marriage, and increasing the number of children born out of wedlock. Over 40 percent of children are born to unmarried women and the majority of such births occur within cohabitation unions.
_____________ parents are those who are caring for their own children as well as their elderly parents.
As human beings we are biologically alike; we have the same biological needs.
Humans are influenced by where they live such as northern versus temperate climates.
Language is influenced by the region we line in- also by what we eat, wear, and live in.
This represents a country often with the same language. A central government establishes laws, policies, and institutions. Each country has a world view and citizens socialize each other accordingly through education and other means.
This is a culture specific to a region within a nation. In the U.S., this could be the South, Midwest, etc.
Refers to assumed biological differences including physical features that are used by people to identify majority and minority groups. One may be treated as inferior; race related cultures develop.
Refers to practices, language, and learnings of a group and style of living which are often regionally or culturally based.
Relates to differential levels of material possessions or economic advantage including assets and money.
Refers to the broad categories of individuals who may have special concerns and needs or seek respect, representation, and development in society.
These categories include: racial, ethnic and religious classifications, women, elderly, single parent families, divorced, handicapped, gays and lesbians, poor, children, and young adults.
The extent to which an individual from a racial or ethnic minority adopts and incorporates the values, beliefs and customs of the dominant culture.
The extent to which an individual has changed so much that he or she is absorbed into the dominant group losing their own original values and behaviors.
From Gilbert Wrenn, this term refers to:
The substitution of model stereotypes for the real world.
Disregarding cultural variations-believing in some universal notion of truth, and
Use of a technique-oriented definition of the counseling process. For example, a Gestalt therapist might only use certain Gestalt techniques, no matter who the client or what the problem.
The belief that you need to understand and help groups from their perspectives-their culture-a specific focus
The belief that you have a global view of humanity, that is, we are more similar than different. The focus is on the similarities instead of the differences.
Culture bound values
Counseling tends to be individual centered with verbal/emotional and behavioral expressiveness, with defined communication patterns, openness and intimacy
Class bound values
Strict adherence to a time schedule, ambiguous/unstructured approach to problems, and seeking long range goals or solutions.
There is use of standard English and the emphasis is on verbal communication. These values and use of language could be sources of conflict between the counselor and culturally different client.
Each culture has a set of norms pertaining to almost every phase of existence
Defining the counseling situation may be necessary. Client and counselor roles may need to be defined
Transference and Countertransference
Feelings and attitudes toward each other's culture are likely to be present
Verbal and nonverbal language may be highly specific to cultures: there may be little or no English spoken
Clients from some cultures like to get to know the counselor first as a person
There must be sensitivity to making judgments about clients and their problems; what is strange to you may not be strange to them. Use of tests may be contraindicated.
Hanna and Cardona
In a Journal of Counseling and Development article believe counselors working cross culturally should use a variety of techniques to help the client achieve freedom from any ongoing oppression they feel. Without achieving this freedom, they will continue to experience pain and anger.
Self depreciation attitude and identification with the majority
Current self concept is challenged; there is a conflict between appreciating and depreciating self.
Resistance and Immersion
The individual accepts/endorses the minority views and rejects the majority resulting in self appreciating
The individual moves from the intensity of feelins in the R and I stage and becomes concerned with the basis of self appreciating
The individual can own and appreciate minority and dominant aspects of both cultures.
Speaks of ego statuses and suggests a dynamic evolution rather than static structures or types. Some believed this process occurred for Whites as well as people of color.
Young, Attractive, Verbal, Intelligent, Successful
Quiet, Ugly, Old, Indigent, Dissimilar culturally
Internal desire to be competent and to do something for its own sake.
Drive to do something influenced by external rewards and punishments
this is the belief that rewards and satisfaction are contingent on their own actions and that people can shape their own fate.
This is the belief that events occur independently of their own actions and that the future is determined more by chance and luck.
The explanations we offer for our outcomes influence our future expectancies of success and our future motivation to succeed.
Individuals with Disabilities Education improvement Act of 2004
Free, appropriate public education must be assured to all children and youngsters between 3 and 21.
These individuals with handicaps will be placed in the least restrictive environment.
Each person has an individualized education plan, and
Children with qualifying disabilities attending private schools or those institutionalized are also eligible for services.
Furthermore, the law provides for supplemental funds to communities for services to eligible children from birth through age 2 if the state meets requirements of the law.
The law requires that children with disabilities should be placed/educated with other children including those without disabilities. Mainstreaming and inclusion can be inferred from the language in the law.
Americans with Disabilities Act
The act prohibits employers of 15 or more workers to discriminate in employment against the disabled.
The act also prohibits discrimination in public and private transportation as well as access to public buildings and facilities.
Officially, a disability substantially limits the individual in one or more major life activities such as caring for one's self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, learning and working
Current estimates report that 12.6% of the United States population have varying degrees of disability. The increasing older population is a prime contributor to this estimate.
Over ______ percent of the population is 65 and over. At age 65, the individual has a life expectancy of about 20 years. By 2060 this group will comprise 24% of the population.
By age 60 to 70 most adults have a physical impairment such as a chronic disease, sensory impairment, etc.
Some intellectual decline into the 70s is possible but no inevitable.
Most characteristic personality traits remain stable.
Estimates suggest 10 percent of older adults may have depression and other mental illness.
Few older adults receive mental health services.
Typical issues older adults contend with include: loss-death of friends and spouses, retirement and increased leisure time, physical changes, changing fmaily roles including dealing with adult children.
Although not definitively documented, most experts believe that there is a ___________ tendency to abuse as an adult by someone who was abused as a child.
Opioid use has increased to crisis proportions according to some physician and government groups. Opioids are typically prescribed for pain relief. Other users are those who have experienced psychological trauma of some sort.
Opioid use can become addictive and overdoses result in hospitalizations, and in many cases, death.
The American College of Physicians recommends that prescribing physicians become more familiar with opioids and modify their prescription practices.
21st Century Cures Act in 2016
A part of this law addresses the opioid crisis by providing funds for monitoring prescription drug programs and for treatment programs.
Is the second leading cause of death among 10 to 24 year olds. Although the rate has declined in recent years, about 5,000 adolescents kill themselves each year. At greatest risk of suicide in this age range are American Indian and Alaska Natives. There is some evidence that the modest decline in gay and lesbian teen suicides may be due to the passage of laws allowing for same sex marriages. Although more girls attempt suicide, boys are more successful.
Societal stress and anxiety
Counselors report their clients are expressing and exhibiting more stress and anxiety since 2016. Some causes for the increased stress and anxiety may be:
The political atmosphere is more divisive and sometimes toxic
There is an increase in violence and terrorism
There is more divisiveness between racial and religious groups
There are changes in the protections afforded LGBTQ groups
Climate changes and weather dislocations are increasing.
The concept of cognitive dissonance is associated with _________.
Cognitive dissonance is a source of motivation-we try to reduce dissonance.
For example: Under pressure to make a career decision the individual selects an occupation to reduce the stress. However, to make that selection, the person may need to rationalize that he or she will learn to like that occupation, that there will be jobs, etc.
Believed that dying persons experienced the following behaviors and feelings:
Denial and isolation
Masters an dJohnson
Sexual interest and activity generally decline with age, however, men and women may be sexually active into old age. Later sexual activity and practices reflect earlier activity and practices. Physical and psychological factors may influence sexual activity.
The ___________________ approach was to use male-female co-therapy teams to work with the marital partners together. They believed that a primary reason for sexual dysfunction was that the participant was critically watching and evaluating their own sexual performance. _______________ therapy tried to suspend this self evaluation.
These are the other vocal cues individuals use to communicate with and include loudness of voice, pauses, silences, hesitations, rate of speech, and inflections.
One method of resolving conflict is through mediation.
May present new methods of solution, or
May present a solution that would not be acceptable unless it was presented by a third party.
An ability to express all manner of emotion
The capacity to express one's rights without denying others' rights
Differentiating between aggression and assertion.
Every individual has both male and female characteristics. Sandra Bem has found that approximately 30 percent of children and college samples are androgynous.
Is helping clients find/uncover both male and female characteristics.
Accountability is justifying activities engaged in by counselors to those served and to those who finance their work.
Program accountability had origins in government bureaucracies.
Accountability argues for performance evaluation
For counseling program management and evaluation, see the Professional Counseling Orientation and Ethical Practice section.
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