Terms in this set (69)
Chomsky: Language Acquisition Device
Described as Nativist, asserts that humans are born with a special biological brain mechanism called a Language Acquisition Device (LAD). His theory supposes that the ability to learn language is innate, that nature is more important than nurture, and that experience using language is only necessary in order to activate the LAD
Piaget: Cognitive Constructivism
Language is simply one way that children represent their familiar worlds, a reflection of thought, and that language does not contribute to the development of thinking. He believed cognitive development precedes language development.
Vygotsky: Social Constructivism and Language
He was interested in the ways different languages impact a person's thinking. He suggests that what Piaget saw as young children's egocentric speech was actually private speech, the child's way of using words to think about something, which progressed from social speech to think in words. He views language first as social communication, which gradually promotes both language itself and cognition.
The Acquisition Learning hypothesis
There is a difference between "learning" a language and "acquiring" it. Children "acquire" a first language using the same process they used to learn their first language.However, adults who know only one language have to learn a language through coursework, studying, and memorizing. One can acquire a second language, but often it requires more deliberate interaction within that language.
The Monitor Hypothesis
When the learn language "Monitors" the acquired language. In other words, this is when a person's grammar check kicks in and keeps awkward, incorrect language out of a person's L2 communication.
The Natural Order Hypothesis
The learning of grammatical structures is predictable and follows a "natural order".
The Input Hypothesis
A language learner will learn best when the instruction or conversation is just above the learner's ability. That way, the learner has the foundation to understand most of the language but will have to figure out, often in context, the unknown elements. Some people call this "comprehensible input."
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
People will learn a second language when they are relaxed, have high levels of motivation, and have a decent level of self-confidence.
The stage when a learner knows perhaps 500 receptive words but feels uncomfortable producing speech. The absence of speech does not indicate a lack of learning and teachers should not try to force the learner to speak. Comprehension can be checked by having the learn point or mime. Also known as the Receptive or Preproduction stage.
Also known as the early production stage. When the learner knows about 1,000 receptive words and speaks in one or two word phrases. The learners can use simple responses, such as yes/no, either/or.
Also known as the Speech Emergence Stage. The learner knows about 3,000 receptive words and can communicate using short phrases and sentences. Long sentences typically have grammatical errors.
Also known as the Intermediate Language Proficiency stage. The learner knows about 6,000 receptive words and begins to make complex statements, state opinions, ask for clarification, share thoughts, and speak at greater length.
Experimental or Simplified Speech
Also known as the Advanced Language Proficiency stage. When the learner develops a level of fluency and can make semantic and grammar generalizations.
___ presents a condensed version of the original language without losing the basic meaning.
___ re-states what is written or spoken.
Hearing what is spoken requires a more complicated process than simply hearing sounds.
___ stimulates thinking and learning. They can be used to simulate interest in an academic topic and to set goals for learning.
In a conversation, ___ means declaring one's conversational intent and inviting consent from one's prospective conversation partner.
Conversations progress by managing the flow of information back and forth between partners.
Grammar Translation Method
Traditional approach originally used to teach latin and Greek. Emphasis is placed on helping students read and appreciate the literature of a new language, with the expectation that students will speak and write their native language better, as well as grow intellectually.
focuses on using the second language to communicate. The teacher directs class activities, but the students interact and are more like partners in the teaching/learning process.
Audio Lingual Method
Developed in the U.S. during World War II and using new ideas from descriptive linguistics and behavioral psychology, the audio lingual method use only the target language. The teacher present dialogs; students repeat each line and practice changing one or more words in a sentence.
The Silent Way
Promoted that people learn language by forming rules and applying them, relying on their own thinking processes or cognition to learn.
Community Language Learning
This method evolves from Charles Curran's counseling learning approach. It emphasizes a commitment between teacher and learners to trust one another and the learning process, and approaching learning as a dynamic and creative process.Teachers assist students in communications by supplying chunks of language in the first language to ensure comprehension.
Total Physical Response
Developed by James Asher, and also called "The comprehension approach," this method relies on students beginning learning by listening. Use the target language communicatively from the beginning of instruction, and emphasizes communicative activities throughout the language learning course.
promotes learning "whole" communication, which is to say learning to use the language rather than learning the rules of language usage.
___ is a strategy used by a second language learner to compensate for his/her lack of proficiency, while learning a second language.
acquiring a second language for a specific reason, such as a job.
acquiring a second language to fulfill a wish to communicate within a different culture
___ occurs when the learner attempts to apply a grammatical rule to instances where it does not apply.
Language Acquisition Device
Chomsky's Theory was known as the ____
Who coined the Cognitive Constructivism Theory?
Nature is more important than nurture
Language is a reflection of thought
___ said that Social communication promotes language and cognition
The difference between learning a language and acquiring it is best explained by the statement: Studying the ___ of a language instead of learning it through reading, TV, etc.
According to Krashen and Terrell's Input Hypothesis, language learners are able to understand slightly ___ than they can ___.
Silent Period, Private Speech, Lexical Chunks, Formulaic Speech, and Experimental or simplified speech
Place the stages of the language acquisition process in order:
Grammar Translation Method
Transcription of literary texts into language being learned or vice-versa.
Uses second language to communicate; students induce grammar
Audio lingual Method
Uses only the target language
The Silent Way
Believes people learn language by forming rules and applying them
Community Language Learning
Teacher gives students chunks of language in the first language to ensure understanding.
Total Physical Response
Teacher gives and acts out commands with students
Emphasizes use vs. usage
trust each other
Community Language Learning requires the members of the group and the teacher to ___
Interlanguage is best described as a language learning ___
"The Teacher 'writted' on the whiteboard" is an example of
value of L2
Bilingualism of ELLs can be greatly improved by the community's ___ __ ___.
Experts on bilingualism recommend exposing the child to ___ ___ as early as possible.
The creation of original utterances is proof that the L2 learner is using ____ ____ to acquire the L2
One of the reasons for learning and using more than one language is to support ___ ___
The affective domain affects how students acquire a second language because learning a second language may make the learner feel ___.
ELLs, social conditions
Social factors influence second language learning because many ___ cannot ignore their ___ ___.
Saying 'You like' instead of 'Do you like this one?' is an example of:
Which technique contributes best to learning?
___ states that students' learning is enhanced when teachers or other individuals provide __ for less-experienced students.
Larry Selinker introduced the theory of ____ in 1972.
____ is a term applied by Selinker to the process in which an L1 learner reaches a plateau and accepts that less than fluent level, which prevents the learner from achieving L2 fluency.
___ are any mental skills that are used in the process of acquiring knowledge, including reasoning, perception, and intuition.
Acquiring a second language for a specific purpose, such as a job.
Acquiring a second language to fulfill a wish to communicate within a different culture.
S.P. Corder is most noted for his work in ____.
occurs when a learner's primary language L1 influences his or her progress in L2. Pronunciation, grammar structures, vocabulary, and semantics are commonly affected.
The practice of modifying language to facilitate comprehension.
Which theory by Stephen Krashen explains conscious error correction during oral second language production?
Most students in a 6th grade beginning-level ESOL class use the morpheme -ed to create the past tense form of all verbs, including irregular ones. These students are applying which second language transitional strategy?
An ELL is assigned the task of writing a narrative about an animal. The student asks the teacher, "What is puppy, you know, little one baby, for cat?" This is an example of ___.
the use of an unnecessarily large number of words to express an idea is ___.