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Homework #13 Bio 110
Terms in this set (41)
A hypothetical population of 200 cats has two alleles, TL and TS, for a locus that codes for tail length. The table below describes the phenotypes of cats with each possible genotype, as well as the number of individuals in the population with each genotype. Which statements about the population are true?
Heterozygotes make up 20% of the population
Homozygotes make up 80% of the population
In the entire cat population, 60% of the alleles are T^s
In the entire cat population, the frequency of the T^l allele is .4
Assuming random mating, each gamete has 40% chance of having a T^l allele and a 60% chance of having a T^s allele
Part B- Determining the expected frequency of each genotype
0.15, 0.48, 0.36
Part C - Using the Hardy-Weinberg equation to determine if a population appears to be evolving
Based on the equation for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the expected number of wolves with the FBFB genotype is 12
Based on the equation for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the expected number of wolves with the FBFW genotype is 96
The population is not at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
The population may be evolving because the actual number of individuals with each genotype differs from the expected number of individuals with each genotype.
According to the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, the frequencies of alleles in a population will remain constant if _____ is the only process that affects the gene pool.
Whenever diploid populations are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at a particular locus
the allele's frequency should not change from one generation to the next, but its representation in homozygous and heteroxygous genotypes may change
In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of allele a is 0.1. What is the frequency of individuals with AA genotype?
You sample a population of butterflies and find that 56% are heterozygous at a particular locus. What should be the frequency of the recessive allele in this population?
Allele frequency cannot be determined from this information
Part A- Calculating allele frequencies in a gene pool
1. To calculate the frequency of the brown allele, count the number of BROWN ALLELES and divide by the total number of alleles in this population
2. In this beetle population, the number of brown alleles is 8
3. In this beetle population, the total number of alleles for color is 20
4. The frequency of the brown allele in this beetle population is .4
5. The frequency of the green allele in this beetle population is .6
Part B - Comparing natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow
-consistently causes a population to become better adapted to its environment
-cannot cause a harmful allele to become more common
-a result of differential success in reproduction
-causes allele frequencies to fluctuate randomly
-responsible for the founder effect
-responsible for the bottleneck effect
-can introduce new alleles into a population's gene pool
-a result of the movement of fertile individuals or their gametes
Part C - Exploring how populations evolve
A. natural selection
B. frequency of white allele increases
C. genetic drift
D. frequency of purple allele increases
E. genetic drift
F. allele frequencies change but not predictably
G. natural selection
H. frequency of purple allele increases
I. gene flow
J. frequency of white allele increases
In peas, a gene controls flower color such that R = purple and r = white. In an isolated pea patch, there are 36 purple-flowering plants and 64 white-flowering plants. Assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what is the value of q for this population?
In unicorns, three alleles at a gene determine the condition of the horn. The allele for a twisted horn, HT, and the allele for a long horn, HL, are codominant; both are completely dominant to the hornless allele, h. The frequency of hornless individuals in the population is 16%, and the frequency of the allele for twisted horns is 0.1. What is the frequency of the long horn allele?
In unicorns, three alleles at a gene determine the condition of the horn. The allele for a twisted horn, HT, and the allele for a long horn, HL, are codominant; both are completely dominant to the hornless allele, h. The frequency of hornless individuals in the population is 16%, and the frequency of the allele for twisted horns is 0.1. What frequency of individuals in the population have horns that are long and twisted?
An adaptation is _____.
a trait that gives an organism a reproductive advantage in the current environment
A group of small fish live in a lake with a uniformly light-brown sandy bottom. Most of the fish are light brown, but about 10% are mottled. This fish species is often prey for large birds that live on the shore. A construction company dumps a load of gravel in the bottom of the lake, giving it a mottled appearance. Which of these statements presents the most accurate prediction of what will happen to this fish population?
the proportion of mottled fish will increase over time
Which of the following must exist in a population before natural selection can act upon that population?
Two of the responses are correct (variation among individuals in reproductive success, genetic variation among individuals)
Which of the following is true?
Once it is established in a population, a new mutation may increase or decrease in frequency depending on the environment.
You are infected with an antibiotic-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Where did you most likely contract it?
Which of the following is true?
Current research indicates that medians are not similar to islands when comparing the diversity of animals or plants.
Natural selection ultimately depends on favorable what?
You discover that a company illegaly dumped old vats of PCBs into a nearby river. What do you expect to see?
Fish with deformities
Which of these individuals is a homozygous genotype?
All the genes in a population are that population's _____.
Genetic drift is a process based on _____.
the role of chance
A mutation occurs when _____.
there is a change in the DNA sequence of a gene
Every few years a giant axe chops off the head of every person who is over 6 feet tall. How will this affect the human population?
Alleles that promote "tallness" will decrease in frequency.
Modern travel along with migration reduces the probability of _____ having an effect on the evolution of humans.
The ease with which humans travel across the globe is likely to increase _____.
Homologous pairs of chromosomes are lined up independently of other such pairs during _____.
Crossing over, resulting in an increase in genetic variation, occurs between _____.
nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes
In human gamete production there is an average of _____ crossover events per chromosome pair.
Which of these gametes contain one or more recombinant chromosomes?
B, C, F, and G
This animation illustrates _____ as it occurs during _____.
crossing over... prophase I
Which of the following are basic components of the Hardy-Weinberg model?
Frequencies of two alleles in a gene pool before and after many random matings
Which of the following statements is not a part of the Hardy-Weinberg principle?
The genotype frequencies in the offspring generation must add up to two.
True or false? The Hardy-Weinberg model makes the following assumptions: no selection at the gene in question; no genetic drift; no gene flow; no mutation; random mating.
What is the frequency of the A1A2 genotype in a population composed of 20 A1A1 individuals, 80 A1A2 individuals, and 100 A2A2 individuals?
What is the frequency of the A1 allele in a population composed of 20 A1A1 individuals, 80 A1A2 individuals, and 100 A2A2 individuals?
The frequency of the A1 allele is 0.3.
Which of the following evolutionary forces results in adaptive changes in allele frequencies?
What genotype frequencies are expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for a population with allele frequencies of p = 0.8 and q = 0.2 for a particular gene?
The expected genotype frequencies are 0.64, 0.32, and 0.04 for A1A1, A1A2, and A2A2, respectively.
Which of the following evolutionary forces could create new genetic information in a population?
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