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Florida BRT: Law Enforcement (Human Issues)

STUDY
PLAY
During a crisis situation, officers have the duty to...
-Recognize & respond to the persons in crisis
-Intervene safely, professionally, & effectively
-Interact w/ community agencies to coordinate & resolve conflicts
-Make referrals to appropriate agencies
A _____ may be a situation or period that is very uncertain, difficult, or painful, especially a time when action must be taken to avoid complete disaster or breakdown.
Crisis
A _____ is defined by the person's perception and response to the event.
Crisis
If the person sees the event as significant or threatening, has used all coping strategies without effect, and is unaware of or unable to pursue other alternatives, a _____ exists.
State of crisis
What are some significant crises that nearly everyone may experience at some time?
-The death of spouse or loved one
-Financial loss
-Termination from a job
-Separation from family and friends
-Beginning of retirement
A crisis may be compounded by _____ factors, which are significant in the severity of the crisis & in determining how a person reacts to various situations.
-Economic
-Personal
-Social
-Psychological
-Physical
What are some behavioral characteristics a person in crisis may display?
-Verbal anger
-Physical signs
-Calm
Cursing, threats and shouting are all examples of _____ of a person in crisis.
Verbal anger
Flushed face, heavy, rapid breathing, clenching and unclenching fists, pacing, pointing fingers, tightening lips, clenching teeth, or sweating are all examples of _____ of a person in crisis.
Physical signs
The effect of the crisis and stress may cause a diminished capability for _____ & _____.
Thinking & decision making
What are the stages of a crisis?
-Recognition stage
-Attempted resolution stage
-Emotional blockage stage
-Accommodations stage
-Resolution stage
In the _____ stage, the person realizes he or she is unable to cope with the situation.
Recognition stage
In the _____ stage, the person struggles to resolve the situation using methods that have worked in previous situations.
Attempted resolution stage
The person's failure to resolve the problem leads to the _____ stage, where the person is unable to solve the crisis and is overwhelmed by emotions.
Emotional blockage
During the _____ stage, the person in crisis is open to suggestion and is willing to try new options.
Accommodations stage
In a crisis, a solution for the problem is achieved at the _____ stage.
Resolution stage
When responding to a crisis call, an officer should...
-Notify the communication center upon arrival at the scene
-Get as much info as possible from dispatch
-Update the communication center of any changes at the location
A low-profile arrival when entering a scene will maximize _____ and minimize _____.
Officer safety & officer vulnerability
When entering a scene, after assessing the situation, the officer should...
-Enter the scene safely & approach w/ caution
-Look for cover & concealment
-Survey entrances, exits, & grounds
When entering a building to respond to a crisis call, officers should remember that...
Someone could be lying in wait to ambush or kill them.
Immediately upon arrival, the officer should assess the subject's...
Physical, intellectual, emotional, and risk status.
Who must the officer manage during a crisis situation?
-Victims
-Witnesses
-Suspects
Crises may become more volatile if the officer injects...
his or her personal mood, bias, or prejudice
What is the goal when managing a scene during a crisis situation?
To restore or maintain order.
When managing a scene during a crisis situation, to reduce tension and calm the situation, an officer could...
Physically separate the disputing parties.
When managing a scene during a crisis situation, why should an officer direct persons to specific seats?
To reduce disputants' mobility and limit their access to weapons, exits, or other disputants.
When trying to calm an angry individual or defuse a situation, the officer should keep in mind...
The concepts of proximity and personal space.
To calm a situation and reduce tension, how can an officer reduce the noise level?
-Ask bystanders to leave
-Request that disputants talk more quietly
-Turn off other noise sources (tv's, radios)
_____ may calm disputants by forcing them to focus on the officer instead of the problem.
Quietly speaking
The officer can identify the person in crisis through...
Observation and by asking questions
When gathering information about the crisis situation, the officer should ask _____ questions that encourage conversation and explanation and avoid _____ questions.
Open-ended, closed.
Examples of intervention options during a crisis include...
-Relocating the person to a safe environment
-Taking the person into custody if he/she commited an arrestable offense
-Initiating an involuntary treatment referral via the Baker or Marchman Acts if criteria exist
-Making referral services
-Arranging for or providing transportation
In crisis situations, by law, a referral is required for...
-Domestic violence
-Child abuse
-Disabled adult or elder abuse
-Suicide risks
Officers are legally required to contact _____ for cases involving abuse.
Department of Children and Families
Florida statutes require that law enforcement follow appropriate agency policy and procedures to assist DCF. This may involve...
-Forced entry
-Emergency removal or transport of victims
-Enforcement of court orders
After identifying the need for referral in crisis intervention, the officer should locate a _____.
Service agency
_____ are designed to meet the needs of individuals in crisis and assist law enforcement with referrals.
Service agencies
A _____ describes service agencies by geographic area, the types of services available, eligibility criteria, an the process for obtaining services.
Community resource directory
In crisis intervention, the referral agency will attempt to...
-Remove the cause of the crisis
-Reduce the extent of the crisis
-Give the person alternative assistance for future crises
Officers should become familiar with the _____ available within their communities in order to provide appropriate referrals.
Agencies & services
_____ is responsible for the safe placement of abused and neglected children, the elderly, and disabled adults.
DCF
If a crime has been committed and the officer takes the suspect to jail, how does the officer provide transportation for the victim to another location?
The officer should contact victim services or assist the victim in arranging for private transportation.
Crises must be documented, at least in a general incident report, and should be detailed as possible including...
-Victim's and subject's statements
-Actions
-Reactions
-Physical condition
-Appearance
To understand the requirements regarding effective interactions with persons with disabilities, a law enforcement officer must understand the _____.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
The _____ is a federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities and requires common places used by the public to provide an equal opportunity for access.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
According to the ADA, an _____ is a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity, has a record of such impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.
Individual with a disability
An _____ is defined as any mental or physiological condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods.
Impairment
Blindness, severe breathing limitation, deafness, inability to use arms or legs, paranoia, or schizophrenia are all examples of _____.
Impairments
Major life activities include...
-Caring for oneself
-Performing manual tasks
-Walking -Seeing -Hearing -Speaking
-Breathing -Learning -Working -Lifting
-Sitting -Standing
-Mental & emotional processes such as thinking, concentrating and interacting w/ others
According to ADA, a _____ is a restriction of the manner, condition, or duration in which a major life activities are perfored compared to nonimpaired people.
Substantial limitation
What are the most common ADA disabilities that law enforcement officers encounter?
-Mental retardation
-Mental illness
-Hearing impairments
-Speech impairments
-Mobility impairments
-Vision impairments
_____ states that no qualified individual with a disibility shall be discriminated against or excluded from participation in or sharing the benefits of the services, programs, employments, or activities of a public entity.
Title II of the ADA
In the event a disabled person with a service animal is arrested, the officer must...
Arrange care for the service animal.
In disability awareness, the officer should explain the _____ in terms the subject can understand, keeping in mind that the subject's vocabulary and understanding of the concept of _____ might be limited.
Miranda rights, rights
In disability awareness, whenever possible, an officer should ensure that someone who knows the individual is _____, and the officer should _____ the interview.
Present, videotape
In disability awareness, after an interview, the officer should inform the _____ and document the disability in the report regarding the interview.
State Attorney's Office
_____ is an impairment of the mental or emotional processes that exercise conscious control of one's actions or of the ability to percieve or understand reality, which imparment substancially interferes with a person's ability to meet the ordinary demands of living, regardless of etiology.
Mental illness
_____ is not directly related to intelligence and occurs in people of all intellectual abilities.
Mental illness
Mental illness is addressed in _____.
Chapter 394, F.S.
Mental illness may be temporary and usually occurs in ______ or _____.
Early adulthood (late teens, early 20's)
Middle adulthood (late 30's, early 40's)
In contrast with mental retardation, _____ may be cured, managed, or treated with counseling or medication.
Mental illness
People with _____ may have a thought, mood, or personality disorder.
Mental illness
People with a thought disorder such as schizophrenia are sometimes unable to accurately percieve reality. This inability is called _____, and the person may be referred to as _____.
Psychosis, psychotic
A _____ is a sensory experience in which a person can see, hear, smell, taste, or feel something that is not there.
Hallucination
A _____ individual may hear voices or claim that bugs are crawling under his or her skin.
Hallucinating
_____ is a false belief that is firmly held in spite of obvious proof or evidence to the contrary.
Delusion
A _____ individual could believe that he or she is someone famous or is being followed by the CIA.
Delusional
_____ & _____ are two common examples of mood disorders.
Major depression & bipolar disorder
Profound feelings of sadness, uncontrollable crying, inability to concentrate, suicidal thoughts, or problems sleeping and eating are symptoms of _____.
Major depression
Alternating episodes of depression and mania are the hallmark of a mental illness known as _____.
Bipolar disorder
_____ is the opposite of depression.
Mania
A person in a _____ episode feels charged up, high, or excitable.
Manic
An officer may observe the following symptoms in a person experiencing a manic episode...
-Loud, quick, uninterrupted speech
-"Racing" thoughts
-Fidgeting
-Hyperactivity
A person experiencing a _____ is easily distracted or may have an exaggerated sense of self, powers, and abilites.
Manic episode
Anxiety is another form of _____.
Mood disorder
Some people with _____ problems can have panic attacks so severe they mimic a heart attack.
Anxiety
During a _____ the person will likely experience rapid heartbeat, chest discomfort, sweating, tension, trembling, choking, and a feeling that something terrible is about to happen.
Panic attack
Excessive nervousness, tension, apprehension, excessive fear or anticipation of imminent danger, ritualistic behavior such as excessive hand washing, or flashbacks are examples of _____.
Anxiety disorder
A _____ is a deeply ingrianed, nonpsychotic, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of relating, percieving, and behaving, serious enough to cause distress or impaired functioning.
Personality disorder
_____ & _____are two types of personality disorders.
Antisocial & borderline
_____ is also known as psychopathic or sociopathic disorder.
Antisocial personality disorder
_____ is primarily a lifelong pattern of behavior that violates rules, social norms, and the rights of others.
Antisocial personality disorder
Individuals with _____ seem to lack the human capacity for empathy, guilt, and remorse.
Antisocial personality disorder
The hallmark of _____ is instability.
Borderline personality disorder
People with _____ often experience rapid and intense mood changes, typically involving angry, erratic, and impulsive behavior, and quickly changing feelings toward themselves or others.
Borderline personality disorder
Factors why some people with mental illnesses stop taking their medication include...
-They do not believe they need it.
-Side effects outweigh the benefits of medication
-Lack of money to fill prescriptions
-Transportation to get the medication
-No support from family or friends
-Past experiences w/ mental health system
-Misinformed about benefits from medication
-They may feel medication is harmful.
Another mental illness symptom may be part of a slow, deteriorating process, such as the dementia associated with _____.
Alzheimer's disease
When observing someone who displays mental illness symptoms, an officer should consider that the situation may be _____.
A medical emergency
According to Florida Statute 394.459, what are the rights of people with mental illnesses?
-The right to be treated with dignity
-To recieve treatment in a timely manner
-To recieve the least restrictive treatment available
-To recieve express & informed patient consent & treatment
-To recieve care & custody of their personal effects unless access to them is deemed inapropriate
-To recieve quality treatment
What are the response options of a law enforcement officer when dealing with a person in a mental health crisis?
-Release
-Voluntary examination
-Involuntary exam (Baker/Marchman Acts)
-Arrest
What are factors an officer should consider to determine if an individual with a mental illness can be released into the community?
If the person...
-Has a residence or stable housing
-Has an established support system in community
-Is actively experiencing symptoms that are severe or impair the ability to function
-Satisfies the criteria for protective custody or involuntary treatment
If the individual with mental illness symptoms is willing to seek treatment, the officer should ask him or her to submit to a _____.
Voluntary examination
A _____ is a decision by an individual to seek psychiatric evaluation for symptoms that may be due to a mental illness.
Voluntary examination
To submit to a voluntary examination, the individual MUST be...
-Compotent
-Able to make a decision
-At least 18 years of age
The _____ provides for emergency service and temporary detention for evaluation and voluntary or involuntary short-term community inpatient treatment, if necessary.
Baker Act
A person may be taken to a recieving facility for involuntary examination if there is reason to believe that they have a mental illness and because of the mental illness the person...
-Has refused voluntary exam after conscientious explanation & disclosure of the purpose of the exam
-Is unable to determine for him/herself whether exam is necessary and without care or treatment the person is likely to suffer from neglect or refuse to care for him/herself
-There is a substantial likelihood that without care or treatment the person will cause serious bodily harm to him/herself or others in the near future, as evidenced in recent behavior
When a person is Baker Acted he/she must be examined within _____ of arrival upon admission to a recieving facility.
72 hours
In a Baker Act situation, if the exam does not determine the person meets the criteria for involuntary treatment under Florida Statute, the person...
Must be released unless he/she consents to voluntary treatment.
If probable cause of a crime exists, the officer may decide that _____ is the appropriate intervention for a person with a mental illness.
Arrest
If the subject with a mental illness is arrested for a _____ the officer should transport the individual to an appropriate recieving facility.
misdemeanor
With mental illnesses, a misdemeanor criminal charge can be handled by...
-A Notice to Appear
-Referral to State Attorney for arrest warrant
-Or another action according to department policy.
When a person who satisfies Baker Act criteria is taken into custody for a _____, he or she should be transported to jail unless emergency medical treatment is necessary.
Felony offense
At booking, the officer must notify the detention supervisor of the arrestee's mental illness and document the Baker Act criteria on the _____.
Arrest advisory
If the subject with mental illness symptoms agrees to a voluntary exam, he/she can be transported to the medical facility by...
-Family
-Friends
-Support agency personnel
When transporting a person for a involuntary exam under the Baker Act, in addition to a normal incident report, the officer must complete a form called the _____.
Report of Law Enforcement Officer Initiating Involuntary Examination
The Report of Law Enforcement Officer Initiating Involuntary Examination is commonly referred to as a _____.
BA-52
When completing the Report of Law Enforcement Officer Initiating Involuntary Examination form, the officer is required to...
Cite specific criteria under Florida Statutes that make the individual eligible for involuntary examination.
_____ means significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior that manifests before the age of 18 and can reasonably be expected to continue indefinitely.
Mental retardation
A mental disability resulting from a _____ is not considered mental retardation unless the affected person is less than 18 years old.
Head injury or disease
A child under the age of 18 who suffers severe brain damage from a fall is considered to have _____, even if the child was of normal intelligence before the fall.
Mental retardation
Mental retardation is not considered to be a _____.
Mental illness
Mental retardation is a lifelong condition and is addressed in _____ F.S.
Chapter 393
_____ is characterized by slow intellectual development and requires development evaluation.
Mental retardation
_____ cannot be cured but the individual's capabilities and independence may be enhanced.
Mental retardation
What are the four levels of mental retardation?
-Mild
-Moderate
-Severe
-Profound
The majority of individuals with mental retardation are at the _____ level of retardation and may not be easily identifiable.
Mild
Persons with _____ & _____ levels of mental retardation are often victims of a criminal act committed by caretakers or family.
Severe & Profound
Individuals with _____ & _____ levels of mental retardation may cover up their disabilities and appear "normal."
Mild & Moderate
At the _____ retardation level people can learn academic and prevocational skills with special training and normally live and work within their community.
Mild
Individuals at the _____ retardation level can be independent in familiar surroundings but may be frustrated by unfamiliar surroundings and circumstances.
Moderate
Individuals at the _____ retardation level can learn functional academic skills and may be able to perform semiskilled work under supervised conditions.
Moderate
An officer should not ask questions about possible reasons for someone's behavior but should...
-Ask one question at a time.
-Explain unfamiliar terms such as "lawyer," "right," and "evidence."
Indviduals with _____ may not be able to distinguish between abstract and concrete thought.
Mental retardation
An officer should watch interviewees with mental retardation for clues because they might be...
-Easily intimidated
-Eager to please
-Generally in agreement with authority
The _____ provides information and support to individuals and agencies working with persons with mental retardation.
Association of Retarded Citizens (ARC)
The two major types of communication disabilities are _____ & _____.
-Hearing impairments
-Speech impairments
Identify the rights of a person with a communication disability.
-They have the right to be heard, even if it means bringing in an interpreter.
-They may not be excluded or segregated from services.
-They may not be denied services.
-They may not be treated differently.
A _____ is a physiological condition that causes difficulty in producing sound or understanding language, including reading and writing.
Speech impairment
Stuttering and slurring of words are common examples of _____.
Speech impairments
A _____ refers to any degree of hearing loss.
Hearing impairments
The two classifications of hearing loss are _____ & _____.
-Hard of hearing
-Deafness
A person who is _____ my suffer from a hearing loss but not to the extent that he or she must rely on visual communication.
Hard of hearing
_____ is a hearing loss of such severity that the individual must rely on visual tools such as writing, gestures, and lip-reading to communicate.
Deafness
A large majority of Florida cases involving defendants who are _____ are dismissed because of events occuring before Miranda rights are explained.
Hearing impaired
_____ is the ability to understand what is being said by watching the lips, facial expressions, and body language of the other speaker.
Lip-reading
_____ is the least effective form of visual communication.
Lip-reading
When communicating with a person with a heaing impairment, an officer should...
speak to the person face to face.
If an interpreter is being used, the officer should...
still speak directly to the individual with the hearing impairment and not the interpreter.
What type of aids are used to help with communication.
-A computer process
-Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD)
-An assistive listening device
Some persons with _____ may have poor balance and/or slurred speech and therefore may appear intoxicated.
Hearing impairments
The _____ for the Deaf should be supplied in writing and conveyed by a sign language interpreter to the suspect's level of understanding.
Miranda Rights
A person who is _____ cannot knowingly waive his or her rights unless the warning is given in his or her language.
Deaf and has limited understanding of the English language
When dealing with the deaf, a(n) _____ may be required in situations such as interviews, interrogations, arrests, Miranda rights advisory, court appearances, and trials.
Interpreter
A qualified _____ is a person who can both recieve and express information and interpret it effectively, accurately, and impartially.
Sign-language interpreter
The ADA defines _____ as a funtional limitation that affects one or more of a person's limbs.
Mobility impairment
_____ refers to a loss or partial loss of vision.
Vision impairment
The types of vision impairments that an officer will encounter most often are _____ & _____.
-Blindness
-Partial sight
_____ is a functional loss of vision.
Blindness
_____ is a visual impairment in which, after correction, objects still look dim or out of focus.
Partial sight
_____ is a developmental disability that occurs in early childhood and continues throughout adulthood, which may result in difficulties with learning, communication, and social interaction.
Autism
What are some communication challenges of an individual with autism?
-Nonverbal or limited verbal skills
-May not respond to strangers
-May repeat words or phrases
-Difficulty expressing his or her needs
Identify characteristics of an individual with autism.
-Behaviors such as throwing tantrums or showing distress for no apparent reason
-May flap their hands, rock themselves, exhibit attachment to objects
-May laugh, giggle, or ignore someone's presence
-May be sensitive to light, sound, & touch
-May be insensitive to pain
-May have no real fear of danger
Identify common characteristics of juvenile offenders.
-High degree of irresponsibility
-Little respect for authority
-Unpredictable behavior patterns
-Manipulative & defiant
Many _____, also known as status offenders, come from broken dysfuntional homes or from low-income families.
Delinquent juveniles
_____ is the leading cause of death among juveniles.
Suicide
There is also a higher incidece of drug & alcohol involvement among _____.
Youthful offenders
What are some options available to officers when responding to juvenile offenders?
-Cursory warning
-Release youth to parents or guardian with explination of offense
-Counseling, social services, or juvenile crime prevention program referral
Arrested juveniles who do not require medical or mental health treatment may be delivered to a _____.
Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) Juvenile Assessment Center
_____ tend to be vulnerable to crime and neglect and are reluctant to report crimes committed against them.
Elderly people
Identify physiological changes related to the aging process.
-Changes in eyesight
-Change in sense of touch
-Loss of balance
-Increased sensitivity to weather
-Loss of muscle ability & strength
-Loss of cognitive ability (think, learn, & remember)
Some elderly people suffer from chronic medical conditions, such as _____ or _____, that result in residual disabilities requiring long-term care.
-Dementia
-Alzheimer's disease
_____ is an organic, progressive mental disorder characterized by loss of memory, impairment of judgment and abstract thinking, and changes in personality.
Dementia
Other physical and emotional conditions that tend to affect the elderly group more than other population groups include _____, _____, & _____.
-Incontinence
-Bed sores
-Dehydration
Factors that put the elderly at risk for suicide include...
...debilitating physical illnesses, often accompanied by severe pain, the death of a loved one, the loss of independence, and financial inadequacy.
The 24-hour resource available to take reports of suspected cases of abuse
1-800-96-ABUSE
The Florida Elder Help Line at _____ provides a wide range of information to help older citizens obtain specific local services.
1-800-96-ELDER
Identify suicide indicators.
-Individual talks about committing suicide
-Attempts intentional self-injury
-Sketches death related drawings
-Despair over the loss of a loved one
-Depression caused by life stressors
-Lack of interest in daily activities
-Hopelessness for the future
-Giving away personal belongings
-Lack of interest in eating
-Dependence on drugs or alcohol
When responding to a call involving a suicidal person, a law enforcement officer can provide assistance through either _____ or _____.
-Intervention
-Referral
_____ is the use of a substance that alters physical or mental function.
Substance use
_____ can be legal or illegal, theraputic or recreational, and can be done by sniffing, snorting, inhaling, swallowing, drinking, smoking, or injecting the substance or absorbing it through the skin.
Substance use
_____ is the continued use of a substance, for nonmedical reasons, despite the knowledge that the substance causes adverse effects on an individual's social or occupational life and psychological or physical health.
Substance abuse
_____ is the compulsive use of substances to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use due to uncontrollable physical or psychological cravings for the substance.
Substance dependence
_____ may lead an individual to increase the dosage of the substance due to an increased tolerance.
Substance dependence
Some factors that can contribute to substance dependence include...
-An addictive personality
-The personal history of the dependent person
_____ is the condition in which a person feels that he or she needs drugs in order to cope with problems, function better in life, or feel different, whether or not there is a physical addiction.
Psychological dependence
_____ is the condition in which the presence of a drug or alcohol is required to maintain normal functioning of the central nervous system.
Physical dependence
_____ is a state of physical and/or psychological dependence on a substance.
Addiction
When use of the substance is discontinued, _____ symptoms occur.
Withdrawal
_____ refers to the physical and mental symptoms that occur after chronic use of a drug is reduced or stopped.
Withdrawal
_____ is a condition in which higher doses of a drug are required to produce the same effect as the initial use.
Tolerance
_____ is the process of allowing the body to rid itself of a drug while managing the symptoms of withdrawal and is often the first step in a drug treatment program.
Detoxification
_____ is the accidental or intentional use of a dangerously large amount of a substance.
Overdose
Symptoms of _____ vary depending on the drug, but can include agitation, confusion, cramps, sweating, and convulsions.
Withdrawal
In addition to local community resources, the _____, _____, and _____ provide assistance for alcohol and substance abusers.
-Hal S. Marchman Act
-Drug courts
-Ex parte court orders
The _____ provides substance abusers with access to emergeny service and temporary detention for evaluation and treatment.
Marchman Act
In exchange for successfully completing a treatment-based drug court program, the court may...
-Dismiss the original drug charge
-Reduce or set aside the sentence
-Propose a lesser penalty
-Offer a combination of the above.
A(n) _____ may be obtained by the filing of a petition by one party, without notice to any other party, stating that a person appears to meet the criteria for involuntary examination.
Ex parte court order
The _____ places all subtances regulated under existing federal law into one of five schedules.
Florida Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act, Chapter 893 F.S.
A substance's schedule is based on...
-Medicinal value
-Harmfulness
-Potential for abuse and/or addiction