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bone resorption is greater than bone formation, compression fractures of the vertebrae may result, kyphosis and loss of height frequently develop, treatment includes dietary supplements of calcium and vitamin D
an inherited disorder, X-linked recessive gene, patients with the disease often have trouble using their legs as young as two to three years of age and are unable to easily stand or climb stairs
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
degeneration of articulating cartilage in joints, pain is increased with weight-bearing activities, movement is limited by osteophytes and irregular cartilage surfaces, damage is irreversible and usually progressive
a systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmune reaction, usually found bilaterally in small joints with symmetrical progression to other joints, pannus covering the cartilage and a lack of nutrients are what cause articular damage, during exacerbation of RA the joint appears to be red, swollen and is tenderankylosis and deformity develop as a result of RA because the skeletal muscle atrophies, fibrosis occurs in the joint, and the alignment of bones is altered, systemic affects include nodules in tissues, fatigue and anorexia, using Glucocorticoids as a long term treatment for RA may result in osteoporosis
differs from the adult form in that rheumatoid factor is not present in JRA, but systemic affects are more severe
Juvenile Rheumatoid arthritis
monosodium urate or uric acid crystals are deposited on the articular cartilage of joints, attacks are precipitated by sudden increases in serum uric acid levels, termed hyperuricemia and may develop if renal excretion is not adequate
a chronic, painful, degenerative inflammatory arthritis primarily affecting spine and sacroiliac joints, causing eventual fusion of the spine, progressive inflammation begins at sacroiliac joints and progresses up the spine, causes rigidity, postural changes, and osteoporosis
a chronic syndrome (constellation of signs and symptoms) characterized by diffuse or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, fatigue, and a wide range of other symptoms, specific trigger points for pain and tenderness is the distinguishing feature of primary fibromyalgia syndrome
skin disorder that occurs when there is an increase in mitosis and a shedding of the epithelium results, causes silvery plaques on an erythematous base
manifestations include hesitancey, dribbling and frequency of urination (because of incomplete emptying of the bladder), prostate is englarged
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
A thick, clear to whitish discharge from the vagina or cervical canal, pH of 4-5, contains mucus
an infection and inflammation of the female reproductive organs. It can scar the tubes that carry eggs from the ovary to the uterus which can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic pain and other problems
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
The infection can easily spread to the peritoneal cavity because the fallopian tubes are obstructed and the exudate cannot drain into the uterus. Chlamydia frequently causes this and subsequent infertility
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
a benign smooth muscle neoplasm, common complications include abnormal bleeding such as menorrhagia
progressive development of fluid-filled cysts and fibrous tissue in the breast
Fibrocystic Breast Disease
the cause is an opportunistic yeast, causes dysuria and dyspareunia (difficult or painful intercourse), the mucosa becomes red pruritic
muscles waste away because of disuse, associated with immobilization and chronic illness
During the fracture healing process, the ____ is the structure into which granulation tissue grows
The procallus or ___ __ serves as a splint across the fracture site serves as a splint across the fracture site
The process of healing a bone may be complicated by inflammation around the fracture site which may lead to ___ ____ & ____ (these as well as presence of osteomyelitis delay the healing).
severe ischemia and tissue necrosis
example: fat emboli from a broken femur can lead to pulmonary inflammation and obstruction
Specific problems can arise due to broken bones
Another problem that can occur with joints is dislocation, where a bone loses its articulation
the joint can look deformed
Pain can be a result of ___ & ___ and is a symptom of osteogenic sarcoma as well
___ ___ & ___ extend through the dermis and subcutaneous tissue up to the edge of the epidermis, but are not technically part of the outermost epidermis
Blood vessels and nerves
frequently develop secondary infections because of the entry of resident flora while scratching the lesion
Pruritic (itchy) lesions
A common initial signal that a recurrence of herpes simplex infection is developing is
a mild tingling or burning along the nerve pathway or on the mouth or lip
Herpes virus is usually spread by ___ during an exacerbation, contact with the fluid in the lesion, and ___ by fingers
are effective in treating such infections (herpes), because they limit the acute stage and viral shedding
causes painful vesicles along a dermatome or cranial nerve pathway, and is more common in older individuals
Herpes zoster, or shingles
cause diseases such as genital warts and plantar warts
Other infections include the human papillomavirus which has many forms
is a sexually transmitted viral disease is a major predisposing factor for developing cervical cancer
can also affect the skin in several forms including squamous cell carcinoma for which a major predisposing factor is exposure to UV light.
is controlled by follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone and occurs throughout a man's life
commonly noticed because of signs including soft, tender, enlarged glands and dysuria
If a hard nodule is found in the peripheral area of the prostate gland, it is typical of a
During one stage of the reproductive cycle, the ___ ___ forms, and secretes estrogen and progesterone during the last half of the menstrual cycle
refers to tumor cells that may demonstrate estrogen receptors on the membrane
Carcinoma of the breast
___ __ __ is the stage of cervical cancer where there is a rapid growth that occurs years after the first indication of dysplasia (abnormal growth
Carcinoma in situ
Sexually transmitted diseases can be easily transferred to a mother to a fetus or newborn during delivery, including (6)
gonorrhea, Chlamydia, herpes simplex, syphilis and HIV
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