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91 terms

Pathophysiology Final Exam

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produces new bone
Osteoblast
breaks down old bone
Osteoclast
chemical transmitter released at the neuromuscular junction
Acetylcholine
at the end of bones, facilitates joint movement
Articulating cartilage
bone resorption is greater than bone formation, compression fractures of the vertebrae may result, kyphosis and loss of height frequently develop, treatment includes dietary supplements of calcium and vitamin D
Osteoporosis
an inherited disorder, X-linked recessive gene, patients with the disease often have trouble using their legs as young as two to three years of age and are unable to easily stand or climb stairs
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
degeneration of articulating cartilage in joints, pain is increased with weight-bearing activities, movement is limited by osteophytes and irregular cartilage surfaces, damage is irreversible and usually progressive
Osteoarthritis
a systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmune reaction, usually found bilaterally in small joints with symmetrical progression to other joints, pannus covering the cartilage and a lack of nutrients are what cause articular damage, during exacerbation of RA the joint appears to be red, swollen and is tenderankylosis and deformity develop as a result of RA because the skeletal muscle atrophies, fibrosis occurs in the joint, and the alignment of bones is altered, systemic affects include nodules in tissues, fatigue and anorexia, using Glucocorticoids as a long term treatment for RA may result in osteoporosis
Rheumatoid arthritis
differs from the adult form in that rheumatoid factor is not present in JRA, but systemic affects are more severe
Juvenile Rheumatoid arthritis
purulent synovial fluid present in a single, swollen joint
Septic arthritis
monosodium urate or uric acid crystals are deposited on the articular cartilage of joints, attacks are precipitated by sudden increases in serum uric acid levels, termed hyperuricemia and may develop if renal excretion is not adequate
Gout
a chronic, painful, degenerative inflammatory arthritis primarily affecting spine and sacroiliac joints, causing eventual fusion of the spine, progressive inflammation begins at sacroiliac joints and progresses up the spine, causes rigidity, postural changes, and osteoporosis
Ankylosing Spondylitis
they are fibrocartilage, they prevent excessive movement of joints
Menisci
tear in a ligament
Sprain
tear in a tendon
Strain
a chronic syndrome (constellation of signs and symptoms) characterized by diffuse or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, fatigue, and a wide range of other symptoms, specific trigger points for pain and tenderness is the distinguishing feature of primary fibromyalgia syndrome
Fibromyalgia Syndrome
hives
Urticaria
skin disorder that occurs when there is an increase in mitosis and a shedding of the epithelium results, causes silvery plaques on an erythematous base
Psoriasis
disease manifested by large vesicles that coalesce and rupture
Pemphigus
excessive fluid collecting between the layers of the tunica vaginalis
Hydrocele
manifestations include hesitancey, dribbling and frequency of urination (because of incomplete emptying of the bladder), prostate is englarged
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
The disease does not normally progress to prostatic cancer
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
A thick, clear to whitish discharge from the vagina or cervical canal, pH of 4-5, contains mucus
Leukorrhea
an infection and inflammation of the female reproductive organs. It can scar the tubes that carry eggs from the ovary to the uterus which can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic pain and other problems
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
The infection can easily spread to the peritoneal cavity because the fallopian tubes are obstructed and the exudate cannot drain into the uterus. Chlamydia frequently causes this and subsequent infertility
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
a benign smooth muscle neoplasm, common complications include abnormal bleeding such as menorrhagia
Leiomyoma
an abnormally heavy and prolonged menstrual period
Menorrhagia
progressive development of fluid-filled cysts and fibrous tissue in the breast
Fibrocystic Breast Disease
causes inflammation of the vagina with copious yellow discharge and foul odor
Trichomoniasis
bleeding between menstrual cycles
Metorrhagia
the cause is an opportunistic yeast, causes dysuria and dyspareunia (difficult or painful intercourse), the mucosa becomes red pruritic
Vaginal candidiasis
synthetic hormones used to create testosterone supplements
Anabolic steroids
muscles waste away because of disuse, associated with immobilization and chronic illness
Disuse Atrophy
refers to an irregular curve in the spine which results in a hump at the upper back
Kyphosis
fractures are those that break through the skin
Open fractures
occurs when the distal radius is broken
Colles' fracture
During the fracture healing process, the ____ is the structure into which granulation tissue grows
hematoma
The procallus or ___ __ serves as a splint across the fracture site serves as a splint across the fracture site
fibrocartilaginous callus
The process of healing a bone may be complicated by inflammation around the fracture site which may lead to ___ ____ & ____ (these as well as presence of osteomyelitis delay the healing).
severe ischemia and tissue necrosis
example: fat emboli from a broken femur can lead to pulmonary inflammation and obstruction
Specific problems can arise due to broken bones
Another problem that can occur with joints is dislocation, where a bone loses its articulation
the joint can look deformed
Pain can be a result of ___ & ___ and is a symptom of osteogenic sarcoma as well
fractures, dislocations
the pain from ___ ___ is steady and can persist during rest as well as activity
osteogenic sarcoma
The skin is composed of three layers
epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue
___ ___ & ___ extend through the dermis and subcutaneous tissue up to the edge of the epidermis, but are not technically part of the outermost epidermis
Blood vessels and nerves
Many problems are associated with the skin and vary in ___ & ___
signs and symptoms
with type I hypersensitivity, ____ is a common effect in response to ingested substances
urticaria
frequently develop secondary infections because of the entry of resident flora while scratching the lesion
Pruritic (itchy) lesions
can cause furuncles, cellulitis and impetigo (extremely contagious).
S. aureus
is another disease that affects the skin
Herpes
A common initial signal that a recurrence of herpes simplex infection is developing is
a mild tingling or burning along the nerve pathway or on the mouth or lip
Herpes virus is usually spread by ___ during an exacerbation, contact with the fluid in the lesion, and ___ by fingers
saliva, autoinoculation
are effective in treating such infections (herpes), because they limit the acute stage and viral shedding
Antiviral drugs
shingles
Herpes zoster
causes painful vesicles along a dermatome or cranial nerve pathway, and is more common in older individuals
Herpes zoster, or shingles
cause diseases such as genital warts and plantar warts
Other infections include the human papillomavirus which has many forms
is a sexually transmitted viral disease is a major predisposing factor for developing cervical cancer
HPV
can affect the skin as well
Fungal infections
tinea
Fungal infections
another skin condition caused by mites burrowing into the epidermis, which causes itching
Scabies
can be diagnosed when nits are found on hair shafts
Pediculosis (lice)
must have a human host and is easily contracted by contact with an infected person.
Lice
can also affect the skin in several forms including squamous cell carcinoma for which a major predisposing factor is exposure to UV light.
Cancer
male gonads
testes
Each of the testes is suspended by a
spermatic cord
formation of sperm
Spermatogenesis
is controlled by follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone and occurs throughout a man's life
Spermatogenesis
failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum)
cryptorchidism
infertility and testicular cancer can result
When cryptorchidism occurs
commonly noticed because of signs including soft, tender, enlarged glands and dysuria
Acute prostatitis
usually spreads to the bone if it metastasizes
Prostatic cancer
A useful serum marker during treatment for prostatic cancer is a
prostate-specific antigen
is the most common cause of acute bacterial prostatitis
E. coli
If a hard nodule is found in the peripheral area of the prostate gland, it is typical of a
malignant tumor
Testicular tumors usually present as
hard, painless masses
The female reproductive cycle is
complicated
During one stage of the reproductive cycle, the ___ ___ forms, and secretes estrogen and progesterone during the last half of the menstrual cycle
corpus luteum
Portions of the female reproductive system are locations of common cancers including
breast cancer
refers to tumor cells that may demonstrate estrogen receptors on the membrane
Carcinoma of the breast
also vulnerable to cancer
cervix
___ __ __ is the stage of cervical cancer where there is a rapid growth that occurs years after the first indication of dysplasia (abnormal growth
Carcinoma in situ
can be identified early via minor vaginal bleeding or spotting
Endometrial carcinoma
Sexually transmitted diseases can be easily transferred to a mother to a fetus or newborn during delivery, including (6)
gonorrhea, Chlamydia, herpes simplex, syphilis and HIV
flat, circumscribed
macule
firm, raised deep
nodule
small, solid elevation
papule
raised, often with a 'head,' filled with exudate of 'pus'
pustule
thin wall, raised, fluid filled
vesicle
slightly elevated, flat, 'scale-like' lesion
plaque
cavity in tissue
ulcer
crack in tissue
fissure