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Immunology Day 1
Terms in this set (98)
What are the 5 basic functions of the immune system?
1. Defense against infection
Basically 4 types of microbes-viruses yeast/fung,parasites, bacteria
2. Defense against tumors
3. Induction of pathologic inflammation
4. Damaged tissue repair
5. Recognition and response to exogenous tissues/proteins
-barrier to transplant and gene therapy
What is the first line of defense of the immune system?
How is recognition a part of the system of defense in immunity?
Can recognize between foreign and "self" and mutated cells
How does destruction have a part in defense system in immunity?
Phagocytosis, lysis etc can attack foreign and mutated cells
AkA natural or nonspecific FAST-the first series of events that happen when exposed to a pathogen. Will kick out histamines, prostaglandins and inflammatory
AKA Specific, humoral, or cell mediated. SLOW. Create memory cells. Brings antigens to system and antibodies are created accordingly.
Is there any crossover between adaptive and innate immunity?
Yes, there is some!
What are the cells of the innate cells?
Immunity may be induced by infection or vaccination
Exposure to microbe mounts an active response and "memory"
May be conferred by transfer of exogenous antibodies
Pt receives Ab from doors (or through placenta/breast milk); immunity is temporary but fast
What are 3 clinical examples of passive immunity?
Rabies-given the vaccine in addtiion to RIG Rabies immunoglobin. Antibodies from horse given to humans.
Tetnus vaccine is a toxoid vaccine- give you protection from exogenous antibodies and vaccine is directed to the toxin itself
Monoclonal antibodies can be used for migraines, Also being used for COVID-19 tx for those hospitalized
What is a natural form of passive immunity?
Maternal antibodies given from mother to baby in form of breast milk
What is an artificial form of passive immunity?
What is a natural form of active immunity?
What is an artificial form of active immunity?
What is hematopoiesis?
The formation and development of cells that make up blood in the yolk sac. Empryo and fetus coccus primarily in the liver, spleen, thymus
Birth-adult: coccus primarily in bone marrow small amount in lymphatic tissue
Where does hematopoiesis occur in adults?
bone marrow and lymphatic tissues of the flat bones
Where does hematopoiesis occur in the embryo and fetus?
liver spleen, and thymus
Where does hematopoisis occur in kids?
In the long bones
If an. adult sustains a major injury to the flat bones where can hematopoeis s alternatively take place?
In the long bones (just like in kids)
Primary lymphoid organs include what? Hint: 2 organs
Bone Marrow and Thymus
Where are B and T cells produced in lymphoid organs?
Both B and T lymphocytes are produced from stem cells in one marrow.
Where do B and T lymphocytes mature in lymphoid organs?
B mature in bone marrow while T migrate town the blood thymus and mature there. After maturation both naive (haven't been exposed to antigens yet, no antibodies in response) circulate blood and secondary lymphoid organs
What are the secondary lymphoid organs?
spleen and lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, Peyer's patches
Where do mature lymphosites enter cells? What happens next?
Mature lymphocytes enter secondary lymphoid organs and respond to foreign antigens. Spleen filters antigen from blood; lymph nodes filter antigens from lymph
Why are there a ton of lymph nodes near gut and respiratory tract?
To make it easier for where they
Primary lymph organs same as?
Generative lymph organs
Secondary lymph organs same as?
Peripheral lymph organs
Antigens (Ag) are anything that cause..
An immune response. They are like a na me tag for each pathogen that announces the pathogens presence to the immune system.
What are some examples of antigens?
Bacteria, virus, fungus, organ transplants, blood transfusions. Also pollens, pet dander, and chemicals
Antibodies (immunoglobulins/Ig, Ab)
are protein molecules created by our immune system to target an antigen for destruction. These portion bind to the foreign antigen thereby disabling the antigen and "tagging it for destruction by other immune defenses.
Cell to cell communication proteins produced by leukocytes in response to antigen. Control immune cell development , differentiator, and movement to a specific part of the body.
What are the type of cytokines? (4 types)
Chemokines, Interluekins, Tumor necrosis Factor, Interferons
A type of cytokine that is released by infected and injured cells.They initiate an immune response by signaling neutrophils and macrophages and want neighboring cells of the thread
are cytokines released by leukocytes that are regulators in part of immune responses, inflammatory reactions and hematopoiesis
What type of interleukins cause fever?
6 and 1
Tumor Necrosis Factor
Activates neutrophils, mediates septic shock, causes tumor necrosis
Interferons (IFN) 2 types
block virus replication
Type 1 include alpha and beta and are serrated by virus infected cells
Type 2 gamma-are the strongest IFN and is mainly secreted by T cells, Natural killer cells and macrophages
What are type 2 gamma interferons secreted by?
T cells, NK cells, and macrophages
What is the strongest type of interferon?
Gamma (Type 2 interferon)
Type 1 Interferon function
To induce viral resistance in cells. can produce almost any type of cell in the body
From infected cells
Type 2 interferon function
Main purpose is to signal the immune system to respond to infections agents or cancerous growth
From immune system
Binding of H1 and H2 receptor results in vaodilation and itching
Causes hives-mast cells degraded and pushed into peripheral tissues
Where is histamine released from?
mast cells and basophils
lipid compounds that act as vasodialotar and chemoattractant to other inflammatory cells
LeukotrinAntagonist for allergies, no effect
What are leyukotrine antagonists used for?
Doesn't allow leyukotrine to vasodialate. Used especially in the case of allergies to block effect of eosinophils
Prostoglandins think ____
Lipid compounds synthesized in with multiple hormone like functions in inflammation, they act as potent vasodilators which also regulate smooth muscle contraction-mostly in the lungs (bronchospasm),
Platelet activating Factor
Lipid compound produced by mast cells; activity almost identical to leukotrienes
What are the components of the innate immunity? (Hint: 7 components)
1. Physical Barriers (skin)
5. Dendritic Cells
6. NK cells
7. Complement Cascade
About how many proteins are apart of the complement cascade? Where are they mainly produced?
25, in the liver
Why can't a microbe evade innate immunity by mutating or not expressing the targets of innate immune recognition?
Microbes do not express functional forms of these structures and lose their ability to infect and colonial the host
What does a microbe usually evade: innate or adaptive immunity?
Adaptive by mutating the antigens that are recognized by lymphocytes because these antigens are usually not required for their life cycle
What are the two things that will set off the innate immune system under normal circumstances?
Foreign antigen and cell injury
What are the 2 basic types of reactions of the innate immune system?
1. Inflammation which leads to destruction of extracellular microbes and elimination of damaged tissues
2. Defense against intracellular viruses ex: TB which lives inside macrophages of our cells
What are some characteristics of innate immunity?
2. Non-specific-responds the same way every time and the response does NOT increase with repeat exposure
In non-specific innate immunity will the response increase with repeat exposure?
NO! it will respond the same way every time
PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns)
structures shared by classes of microbes and are NOT found in mammilaim cells (not self)
Found within Bacteria on lipopolysarcharide (bacterial endotoxin in gram negative such as E.coli) and Peptidoglycans
Found in viruses
-double stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA)
What are PAMPs recognized by?
PPRs (Pattern recognizing Receptors)
In innate immunity what is released upon cellular stress or tissue injury?
DAMPs (Damage associated molecular patterns)
Where are DAMPs released from?
tumor cells, dead cells, dying cells. "Danger signals" may be due to ischemia and tissue hypoxia (ex Crush injury) trauma and other types of non-infectious damage
What are the functions of DAMPs?
Interact with PRRs to produce pro inflammatory cytokines, leading to sterile inflammation
Role in chronic disease and is a potential target for therapy for diseases such as Cardiovascular disease, RA, and Alziehmer's
Where are PAMPs and DAMPs located?
1. Cell surface (TLR) and lectin receptors
What do PAMPs and DAMPs bind? What are they expressed by?
PRRs which are expressed by innate immune cells and non-immune cells such as epithelial cells and fibroblasts.
PPR ligand binding prompts release of inflammatory cytokines
Toll-like receptor (2 kinds)
Surface TLRs recognize proteins
Endosomal TLRs recognize nucleic acids
What do TLRs do?
They stimulate expression of cytokines and other proteins involved in the inflammatory response.
Why are TLRs important?
TLR mutations lead to increased risk of infection. TLR pathways have therapeutic potential for tx of inflammation, infection, allergy and immunity
What are the three components of physical barriers. They are the first level of protection.
2. Mucous Membranes
3. Commensal Bacteria
How does skin protect in the innate immune system?
1. Protects against invasion
2. Acidid pH of sweat creates a hostile environment for bacteria
3. FAs and enzymes from pores and follicles can create a hostile environment
What are some of the components of mucous membranes that act as a protective barrier in innate immune system?
Tears, saliva and mucus contain lysosomes that break down gram poise bacteria-part of reason why we don't contract Staph
What is commensal bacterial and how does it help as a first line of defense in innate immunity?
It is the normal bacterial flora. Creates microbial antagonism. Competes with potential pathogens. Upset by antibiotic use which can create and overgrowth ex G vaginalis
What are the four kinds of granulocytes? Which ones differentiate from myeloblasts?
Basophil, eosinophil, and neutrophils all differentiate from myeloblasts
-circulate in the bloodstream
-"First responders" arrive within minutes of injury
-Dominant cells of acute inflammation
-Particularly active against bacteria and fungi
-Release other cytokines to recruit monocytes and macrophages
What is a Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NETs)?
Part of neutrophil that throws out extracellular fibers that bind bacterial. Also implicated in inflammatory and autoimmune disease
Eosinophils are derived from and are located in?
Derived from bone marrow, usually 1-6% of circulating WBCs
Both circulating in bloodstream and present within organs
-especially in GI tract and respiratory tract
What do eosinophils do?
-release H2O2 and other oxygen radical to kill microbes (brushes parasites, esp helminths)
-release leukotrienes-lipid signaling molecules that cause airway smooth muscle contraction
-active in allergic reactions, asthma
-have a role in adaptive immunity
What are eosinophils role in adaptive immunity?
Stimulate T lymphocytes
-act as antigen presenting cells (APCs)
least common of the granulocytes
-mature in bone marrow and circulate in bloodstream
-Active in allergic reactions and helminth responses
-bonds to IgE coated antigens
What do basophils release?
Histamine and heparin
Mast cells release (4 things)
1. vasoactive amines (histamine) which leads to vasodilation and capillary permeability
2. Heparin-prevention of coagulation
3. Proteolytic enzymes-bacterial death toxin inactivation
4. Pas and TNF-stimulation of inflammation
What will cause a mast cell to degranulate?
2. Encounters antigen or allergen
3. Exposed to complement proteins
Involved in immediate hypersensitivity reaction
-leave bone marrow as immature cells and mature in tissues
-present in tissue that are boundaries b/t "inside" and "outside" skin/mucosa
Monocytes will differentiate into?
Macrophages and Dendritic cells
What do monocytes do?
1. Ingest microbes in the blood and tissues
2. During inflammatory reactions, precursor in bone marrow give rise to circulation monocytes, which enter peripheral tissue and mature to form macrophages and are activated locally
3. In the fetus, precursor in the yolk sac and liver give rise to cells that seed tissues to generate specialized tissue-resident macrophages
What are the 3 stages of macrophage readiness
1. Resting-cleaning up cellar debris (scavengers)
2. Primed-more active engulfing of bacteria, display garments of bacteria for T cells (act as APCs)
3. Hyper-activated-infalmmatory cytokines causes macrophages to enlarge and star rapidly destroying pathogens and cancerous cells
What are some of the characteristics of macrophages?
Large, strong phagocytes!
Present in skin, lungs, GI tract, and most tissues
What do macrophages do?
-release TNF and Interlukins
-Act as APCs
-After digestion a pathogen will present antigen to a T helper cell
-Antigen is integrated into cell membrane and attached to an MHC class 2 molecule
-MHC class 2 indicates to other WBCs that macrophage is not a pathogen despite having antigens on its surface
How does an MHC class 2 work with a macrophage?
After macrophage digests a pathogen and presents it to T helper cell the antigen is integrated into the cell membrane by attaching to MHC 2.
-WBCs know not to attach macrophage even though antigens are on its surface
What are Kupffer cells?
Specialized macrophages within the liver that destroy bacteria and old RBCs
Chronic activation leads to overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and chronic inflammation
-this can cause liver cell damage and CA
What is an example of when macrophages may end up being the HOST of intracellular bacteria?
TB! lives and replicates inside the alveolar macrophages that ingest them. TB bacterial proteins and lipids destroy macrophages phagosomes, blocks phagosome maturation. Inhibits inflammation and impairs apoptosis.
What are dendritic cells?
-strongest of APCs
-best at activating helper T lymphocytes
-Migrates to nearest lymph node and presents antigen to T cells and B cells
What is a Langerhan cell?
A specialized dendritic cell in the skin which senses the environment. Developed tolerance to symbiotic organisms.
Natural Killer Cells
NK are cytotoxic lymphocytes but don't need to recognize or remember to kill
-Have granules that contain destructive enzymes
-Kill target by rexlaseing performs and proteases that cause cell membrane lysis or trigger apoptosis in the target cell
-apoptosis in target by surface contact
Natural killer cells
Little bombs (like eosinophils)
NKCs are particularly active against?
Viruses and cancer cells
Recognize cellular stress ligands
Where do NK cells hang?
-They are "on call" and hang in the bloodstream, liver, spleen.
How do NKCs work with adaptive immune system?
-Serve to contain viral infections while adaptive immune response is generating antigen specific cytotoxic T cells can clear the infection
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