Chapter 1: microbes & human history

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Discovered first microscope (30X); viewed macroscopic life (insects & molds); published drawings in micrographia
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Terms in this set (29)
The critics of Spallanzani's experiment believed that _____ needed to enter the flask in order for life to be created from nonliving materials, and Spallanzani's experiiment did not allow air to enter the flasks of sterile broth. Louis Pasteur, however, was able to allow air to enter the flask of sterile broth.
Louis Pasteur demonstrated that chemical transformation may result from the _______ processes of _______ thingsMetabolic; livingPasteur discovered that yeast carry out _________; in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic), yeast produce __________ (ethanol)Fermentation; alcoholIn Pasteur's germ theory of fermentation, bacterial contamination & growth accounted for _______ ______ productionAcetic acidSpontaneous generation was revisited when Pasteur used a _______ ______ _______ to refute the idea that oxygen is required for growth of microbialsSwan neck flaskPasteur's swan neck flask admitted air but prevented travel of ________-_______ ________Microbe-carrying dust_______ _______ was the first to establish scientific principles for linking a specific microbe to a specific disease (1870s)Robert KochRobert Koch's model for chain of infection established that cows with rod shaped cells in their blood hadAnthrax from Bacillus anthracisIt was easy with Robert Koch's model to establish the ________ of the disease, but more difficult when examining tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis) since the bacteria would hide out in the body's lung cells)EtiologyKoch's postulates are only applicable to ________ diseaseInfectiousKoch discovered the germ theory of ________ through his Koch postulates discovery (Experimental protocol to link specific microbe to a specific disease)DiseasePasteur, Koch, and others developed the _______ _______ ________ techniques which allowed scientists to isolate bacteria or archaea from any sample and study how DNA replicates. This caused golden ageAseptic pure cultureallows for spatial separation of microbes and isolation; aseptic pure culture techniquesSolid growth media (agar and gelatin)Devoid of any living cellsSterilizedParticular to inanimate objectsDisinfection________ ________ practiced immunization by using cowpox (less virulent form of smallpox) to vaccinateEdward JennerPasteur _______ vaccines for foul cholera & rabies (gives immune response without the sickness)AttenuatedType of immunization that involves inoculation of a less virulent form of a pathogen into the bodyVaccinationA vaccine may be attenuated via a _________ treatment which causes "aging" of pathogenHeat/chemicalIn a vaccination, the molecular components of the pathogen, called an _______, stimulates the body's immune system, providing immunityAntigen