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Inflammation Day 2 Lecture
Terms in this set (38)
non-specific defense of the immune system to tissue injury or infection characterized by redness, swelling, warmth and pain.
What is redness and warmth due to?
Changes to localized blood flow! (via histamine and vasodilation)
What is swelling and pain due to?
Due to influx of fluid and cells from inside of vasculature into tissues. This is due to loosening of tight junctions
What is the goal of the processes of inflammation? (2)
1. Create a hostile environment and ultimately kill pathogens
2. Create an environment that promotes wound healing
What can happen if inflammation is chronic?
Can become pathologic leading to destruction, scarring and loss of fx. May be detrimental if unregulated or directed at "self" proteins
What is released during the inflammatory cascade?
Histamine, prostaglandin, leukotrienes, DAMPs
What happens during the inflammation cascade?
1. Release of histamine, prostaglandin, leukotrienes
3. Leaky capillaries
4. Exudative fluids brings phagocytes and clotting factors into tissues
5. Cells entering the area resales chemotactic factors that recruit additional cells.
What are the two major factors that determine vascular permeability?
1. Blood flow
2. Endothelial barrier function
What acid is released when blood flow damages vessel?
When arachidonic acid is released what is increased?
COX and LOX activity increases
leads to production of leukotrienes which leads to vasodilation
leads to production of prostaglandin production
How can we utilize Aspirin in COX pathway?
Can use it to block COX 1 which blocks prostaglandin pathway.
What is a downfall of using ibuprofen to block COX pathway?
Can lead to ulcers, especially in elderly
What is exudate?
Cellular components exit due to pressure pushing fluid out into interstitial
What is transudate?
Increase pressure pushes fluid from vascularature into interstitial space
Cellular Adhesion Molecule (CAMs)
membrane proteins that connect to other cells or ECM
Play a major role in the recruitment and migration of neutrophils to site of inflammation
MHC Proteins/Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)
Cell surface molecules which help the immune system to determine if cell is "self" or "not self" by binding antigen to cell surface and displaying for recognition of T cells
MHC Proteins/Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) and organ donation
Determines organ donation compatibility
More MHC matches the better the recipient will respond to donation
Does MHC proteins partaken in T and B cell activation?
Yes, they are displayed in combo with a piece of antigen by APCs
Acute Phase reactants
Have different roles just like we do. In our families we have certain roles but when we show up to class we are PA students. All Acute OPSONIZE or mark pathogens or injured cells for destruction in some way.
What are the 3 function of the complement system?
1. Inflammation (anayphalotoxins)
3. Cytolyis-via membrane attack complex (MAC)
What are the 3 main pathways of the complement system?
What is the stimuli for the classical pathway in the complement system?
Activated by antigen/Ab complexes
What is the stimuli for the lectin pathway in the complement system?
Activated by microbe surface carbohydrate. Doesn't have to be mannose-can be any carbohydrate
What is the stimuli for the alternative pathway in the complement system?
Activated by direct binding of C3b to microbes
Constantly "turned on" at low levels and can activate spontaneously
-this is the only one that does its' own thing and can recognize a microbe to start pathway!
C3a & C5a
Common outcome for all three complement pathways
-fx is to stimulate phagocytes (most specifically neutrophils)
C5b, C7, C8, C9
fx is to form the MAC (membrane attack complex)
-pokes a hole into a pathogen and will cause it to lyse
Is constantly switched on
can also start alternative pathway
Many of the same innate immune responses that fight infection also trigger coagulation via the ______ pathway
Intrinsic pathway includes factors (4)
Factor 8, 9, 11, and 12
Extrinsic Pathway includes factor
What is the first factor that is intermediate between extrinsic and intrinsic pathway? What will this eventually lead to? Fibrinogen to ___?
Factor 10, Coagulation, Fibrin
What is the output of the intrinsic pathway? (From Kemptons slide 61)
-she explained that activation of intrinsic pathway leads to the bradykinin formation
What is the role of bradykinin?
Vasodilation leading to hypotension
-Involved in pain perception, stimulate release of IL-1 and TNF
-enhanced by prostoglandins
What is the relationship between plasmin and fibrin in the coagulation pathway?
Fibrin increases coagulation, Plasmin decreases coagulation. This balance is under strict control.
Innate immunity is an ______ response
Innate immunity is ______ and doesn't increase with repeat exposure to pathogen
It will respond the same each time regardless of the pathogen and how many times its been exposed.
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