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What are the characteristics of Polyarteritis Nodosa?
Numerous inflammatory nodules form in small & medium size vessels.
What are the symptoms of polyarteritis nodosa?
Anorexia, weight loss, NVD, organ effects due to ischemia, and increased risk of thromus, stroke and aneurysm.
Why does polyarteritis nodosa increase risk of thrombus, stroke & aneurysm?
Inflammation damages the BV walls activating the clotting cascades.
What are the characteristics of giant cell arteritis?
Inflammation develops raidly and eventually involves the entire vessel wall.
What are some common manifestations of giant cell arteritis?
Headache, blurred vision, blindness, aortic aneurysm (10% of patients) and 50% have polymalgia.
What population would you typically see buerger disease in?
Young men who are heavy cigarette smokers
What are the characteristics of buerger disease?
Vasospasm, thrombus formation, destroys function of small & medium arteries in extremities.
What vasculitis disease destroys function in small & medium arteries in the extremities?
What are the manifestations of Buerger Disease?
Pain, tenderness, sluggish blood flow, ischemia, hypoxia, skin & nails "thin", and gangrene if severe.
What is Raynaud Phenomenon & Disease?
Uncontrolled vasospasm of small arteries in the fingers and toes.
What vasculitis disease effects primarily small arteries in the fingers and toes?
Raynaud Phenomenon & Disease
Name the vasculitis disease(s) that are caused by inflammatory response:
1. Polyarteritis Nodosa
2. Giant Cell Arteritis
3. Buerger Disease
What are some manifestations of Raynaud Disease?
Numbness, Tingling, Ischemia, cyanosis, Rubor after vasospasm, brittle skin and nails, gangrene and ulceration if severe.
What are the causes of a thrombus?
Injury, stasis of blood, surgery, immobility, hypercoaguability, post-partum, and atherosclerosis.
What can cause a embolism?
Thrombus, bacteria, fat...broken long bone, lymphatic blockage, air, and cancer cells.
What are some common agent that can be used to prevent the formation of a DVT?
Warfarin, and Aspirin
It is important to know that varicose veins are rarely serious but may lead to _______ _______ ________ which is dangerous.
Chronic venous insufficiency
What are some causes of chronic venous insufficiency?
Chronic distention of veins
Trauma to valves
What are the manifestations of CVI?
Pathological changes to tissues due to ischemia, accumulation of wastes, hypoxia.
Stasis dermatitis, stasis ulcer
Marked edema of feet & ankles
What is a common inflammatory skin disease that occurs on the lower extremities in patients with chronic venous insufficiency with venous hypertension?
What are wounds that are thought to occur due chronic venous insufficiency, usually of the legs. They are the major cause of chronic wounds, occurring in 70% to 90% of chronic wound cases.
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