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33 terms

A&P II Lab - Anatomy of the Urinary System

From slides
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ureters
drain urine from the kidneys and conduct it by peristalsis to the bladder
urinary bladder
provides temporary storage for urine
urethra
drains the bladder
trigone
the triangular region of the bladder which is delineated by three openings (two ureteral and one urethral orifice)
prostatic; membranous; spongy
the three sections of the urethra
renal capsule
a smooth transparent membrane that tightly adheres to the external part of the kidney
kidney cortex
the superficial kidney region which is lighter in color
medullary region
the region deep to the cortex -- segregated into triangular regions
Renal pyramids
triangular regions of the renal medulla
renal columns
areas of tissue which segregate and dip inward between the pyramids
renal pelvis
medial to the hylus, a fairly flat basinlike cavity that is continuous with the ureter, which exits from the hilus region
major calyces
the large or primary extensions that subdivide to contact the renal pyramids
minor calyces
subdivisions of the larger tubes that draw urine from the renal pyramids
nephron
the anatomical units responsible for forming urine
glomerulus; renal tubule
the two major structures of the nephron
renal corpuscle
the glomerulus-capsule comples is also known as the ____
cortical nephrons
nephrons found in the cortex
juxtamedullary nephrons
these nephrons have loops of henle that extend into the medulla
collecting ducts
approaching the renal pelvis, these fuse to form larger papillary ducts -- empty the final urinary product into the calyces and pelvis of the kidney
peritubular capillary beds
capillary beds that surround the convoluted tubules
glomerulus
capillary bed found in the Bowman's capsule
afferent arteriole
feeds the glomerulus with blood
efferent arteriole
drains the glomerulus
peritubular capillary bed
capillary bed that arises from the efferent arteriole draining the glomerulus
juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)
region of each nephron which is important in forming concentrated urine
filtration, reabsorption, secretion
the three processes that composes urine formation
filtration
a largely passive process where a portion of the blood passes from the glomerular bed into the glomerular capsule
tubular reabsorption
occurs when the filtrate components move through the tubule cells and return to the blood in the peritubular capillaries
tubular secretion
the reverse process of tubular reabsorption -- important in controlling blood pH
micturtion
the process in which urine empties from the bladder
external urethral sphincter
skeletal muscle that is voluntarily controlled in the process of urination
internal urethral sphincter
a smooth muscle that is an involuntary sphincter in the process of urination
incontinence
the lack of voluntary control over the external sphincter