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Pre-natal stage of star

a dense region of cosmic matter forms due to gravity

Star is born (often in clusters)

gravity & temp. go increase, nuclear fusion creates other elements

Star stabilizes

Outward fusion force= inward gravity force, Sun and 90% of life,

Mass of Star

Star's life depends on it.


Larger mass, burn fast, short life


Smaller mass, burn slow, long life (Sun)


gravity takes over fusion, star swells to red giant, new energy found, lives, but not the same

Old Aged star -

2 types: Low mass: layers shed, NEBULAE & High mass: iron core, STAR COLLAPSES


Low mass: collapse to solid, very dense High mass:gravity makes it a black hole or neutron star (raindrop), rest of star blows up into a supernova


white dwarf fades away to black dwarf, supernova id more dense so becomes a neutron star, black hole is extremely dense

Universe began with these elements

Hydrogen and Helium


Creates other elements after Hydrogen and helium

We are all made of stardust?

As stars are born and die, their elements are spread through the galexy making stars and planets and all matter, including us (God does it!)

Object moving away from Earth

Spectral lines becoming longer wavelength, red

Object moving toward Earth

Spectral lines go to shorter wavelengths, blue

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